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## Tiruchirappalli - Wikipedia

Tiruchirappalli (pronunciation (help · info)) (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a major tier II city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli district.The city is credited with being the best livable city and the cleanest city of Tamil Nadu, as well as the fifth safest city for women in India..
From: en.wikipedia.org

Tiruchirappalli[b] ( (help·info)) (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Tiruchi or Trichy, is a major tier II city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli district. The city is credited with being the best livable city[7] and the cleanest city of Tamil Nadu, as well as the fifth safest city for women in India.[8] It is the fourth largest city as well as the fourth largest urban agglomeration in the state. Located 322 kilometres (200 mi) south of Chennai and 374 kilometres (232 mi) north of Kanyakumari, Tiruchirappalli sits almost at the geographic centre of Tamil Nadu state. The Cauvery Delta begins 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the Kaveri river splits into two, forming the island of Srirangam which is now incorporated into the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation. The city occupies an area of 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi) and had a population of 916,857 in 2011.[a]

Tiruchirappalli's recorded history begins in the 3rd century BC, when it was under the rule of the Cholas. The city has also been ruled by the Pallavas, Pandyas, Vijayanagar Empire, Nayak Dynasty, the Carnatic state and the British. The most prominent historical monuments in Tiruchirappalli include the Rockfort at Teppakulam, the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam and the Jambukeswarar temple at Thiruvanaikaval. The archaeologically important town of Uraiyur, capital of the Early Cholas, is now a neighbourhood in Tiruchirappalli. The city played a critical role in the Carnatic Wars (1746–1763) between the British and the French East India companies.

The city is an important educational centre in the state of Tamil Nadu, and houses nationally recognised institutions such as National Institutes of Technology (NIT), Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) National Law Universities (NLU), and Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIIT) Srirangam. Industrial units such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Golden Rock Railway Workshop, Ordnance Factory Tiruchirappalli (OFT) and High Energy Projectile Factory (HEPF) have their factories in the city. The presence of a large number of energy equipment manufacturing units in and around the city has earned it the title of "Energy Equipment and Fabrication Capital of India". Tiruchirappalli is internationally known for a brand of cheroot known as the Trichinopoly cigar, which was exported in large quantities to the United Kingdom during the 19th century.

A major road and railway hub in the state, the city is served by the Tiruchirappalli International Airport (TRZ) which operates flights to the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

Etymology

Historically, Tiruchirappalli was commonly referred to in English as "Trichinopoly".[11] The shortened forms "Trichy" or "Tiruchi" are used in everyday speech and the full name Tiruchirapalli appears in official use by government and quasi-government offices but seldom used by the general public.[12][13]

According to the late scholar C. P. Brown, Tiruchirappalli might be a derivative of the word Chiruta-palli (lit. "little town").[14][15] Orientalists Henry Yule and Arthur Coke Burnell have speculated that the name may derive from a rock inscription carved in the 16th century in which Tiruchirappalli is written as Tiru-ssila-palli, meaning "holy-rock-town" in Tamil.[14][15] Other scholars have suggested that the name Tiruchirappalli is a rewording of Tiru-chinna-palli, meaning "holy little town".[14][15] The Madras Glossary gives the root as Tiruccinappalli or the "holy (tiru) village (palli) of the shina (Cissampelos pareira) plant".[15]

According to Hindu mythology, Tiruchirappalli derives its name from the three-headed demon Trishira, who meditated on the Hindu god Shiva near the present-day city to obtain favours from the god.[14] An alternative derivation, albeit not universally accepted,[14] is that the source of the city's name is the Sanskrit word "Trishirapuram"—Trishira, meaning "three-headed", and palli or puram meaning "city".[14][15]

History Early and medieval history

Tiruchirappalli is one of the oldest inhabited cities in Tamil Nadu and 3rd oldest city in India after Madurai and Varanasi; its earliest settlements date back to the Sangam period.[16] Uraiyur, the capital of the Early Cholas for 600 years from the 3rd century BC onwards,[17] is a neighbourhood in the present-day Tiruchirappalli.[18][19] The city is referred to as Orthoura by the historian Ptolemy in his 2nd-century work Geography.[20] The world's oldest surviving dam, the Kallanai (Lower Anaicut) about 18 kilometres (11 mi) from Uraiyur,[21] was built across the Kaveri River by Karikala Chola in the 2nd century AD.[22]

Tiruchirappalli Rock Fort, the rock is said to be one of the oldest formations in the world. It is 3.8 billion years old, as it is older than Greenland and Himalayas.

The medieval history of Tiruchirappalli begins with the reign of the Pallava king Mahendravarman I, who ruled over South India in the 6th century AD and constructed the rock-cut cave-temples within the Rockfort.[23][24][25] Following the downfall of the Pallavas in the 8th century, the city was conquered by the Medieval Cholas, who ruled until the 13th century.[26]

After the decline of the Cholas, Tiruchirappalli was conquered by the Pandyas,[27] who ruled from 1216 until their defeat in 1311 by Malik Kafur, the commander of Allauddin Khilji.[28][29] The victorious armies of the Delhi Sultanate are believed to have plundered and ravaged the region.[28][29][30] The statue of the Hindu god Ranganatha in the temple of Srirangam vanished at about this time and was not recovered and reinstated for more than fifty years.[29][30] Tiruchirappalli was ruled by the Delhi and Madurai sultanates from 1311 to 1378,[31] but by the middle of the 14th century the Madurai Sultanate had begun to fall apart.[32] Gradually, the Vijayanagar Empire established supremacy over the northern parts of the kingdom, and Tiruchirappalli was taken by the Vijayanagar prince Kumara Kampanna Udaiyar in 1371.[33] The Vijayanagar Empire ruled the region from 1378 until the 1530s, and played a prominent role in reviving Hinduism by reconstructing temples and monuments destroyed by the previous Muslim rulers.[34] Following the collapse of the Vijayanagar Empire in the early part of the 16th century, the Madurai Nayak kingdom began to assert its independence.[35][36][37] The city flourished during the reign of Vishwanatha Nayak (c. 1529–1564), who is said to have protected the area by constructing the Teppakulam and building walls around the Srirangam temple.[38][39] His successor Kumara Krishnappa Nayaka made Tiruchirappalli his capital,[39] and it served as the capital of the Madurai Nayak kingdom from 1616 to 1634 and from 1665 to 1736.[40][41][42]

In 1736 the last Madurai Nayak ruler, Meenakshi, committed suicide, and Tiruchirappalli was conquered by Chanda Sahib.[37][43] He ruled the kingdom from 1736 to 1741, when he was captured and imprisoned by the Marathas in the siege of Tiruchirappalli (1741) led by general Raghuji Bhonsle under the orders of Chhattrapati Shahu.[43][44][45] Chanda Sahib remained prisoner for about eight years before making his escape from the Maratha Empire. Tiruchirappalli was administered by the Maratha general Murari Rao from 1741 to 1743, when it was acquired by the Nizam of Hyderabad, who bribed Rao to hand over the city.[43][45] Nizam appointed Khwaja Abdullah as the ruler and returned to Golkonda.[46] When the Nawab of the Carnatic Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah was dethroned by Chanda Sahib after the Battle of Ambur (1749), the former fled to Tiruchirappalli, where he set up his base.[47][48][49] The subsequent siege of Tiruchirappalli (1751–1752) by Chanda Sahib took place during the Second Carnatic War between the British East India Company and Muhammed Ali Khan Wallajah on one side and Chanda Sahib and the French East India Company on the other.[50] The British were victorious and Wallajah was restored to the throne. During his reign he proposed renaming the city Natharnagar after the Sufi saint Nathar Vali, who is thought to have lived there in the 12th century AD.[51][52] Tiruchirappalli was invaded by Nanjaraja Wodeyar in 1753 and Hyder Ali of the Mysore kingdom in 1780, both attacks repulsed by the troops of the British East India Company.[53] A third invasion attempt, by Tipu Sultan—son of Hyder Ali—in 1793, was also unsuccessful;[54] he was pursued by British forces led by William Medows, who thwarted the attack.[55]

British rule

The Carnatic kingdom was annexed by the British in July 1801 as a consequence of the discovery of collusion between Tipu Sultan—an enemy of the British—and Umdat Ul-Umra, son of Wallajah and the Nawab at the time, during the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War.[56][57] Trichinopoly was incorporated into the Madras Presidency the same year, and the district of Trichinopoly was formed, with the city of Trichinopoly (or Tiruchirappalli) as its capital.[58]

During the Company Raj and later the British Raj, Tiruchirappalli emerged as one of the most important cities in India. According to the 1871 Indian census—the first in British India—Tiruchirappalli had a population of 76,530, making it the second largest city in the presidency after the capital of Madras (now Chennai).[59] It was known throughout the British Empire for its unique variety of cheroot, known as the Trichinopoly cigar.[15] Tiruchirappalli was the first headquarters for the newly formed South Indian Railway Company in 1874 until its relocation to Madras in the early 20th century.[c][61]

Contemporary and modern history

Tiruchirappalli played an active role during the pre-independence era; there were a number of strikes and non-violent protests during the Quit India Movement,[62] notably the South Indian Railway Strike that took place in 1928.[63] The city was the base for the Vedaranyam salt march initiated by C. Rajagopalachari in parallel with the Dandi March in 1930.[64] Tiruchirappalli was an epicentre of the anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu when a team of Tamil language supporters gathered and organised a rally from the city to Madras in 1938.[65] Later in 1965, Tiruchirappalli was made the base of the "Madras state Anti-Hindi Conference" convened by C. Rajagopalachari.[66][67] The population of Tiruchirappalli continued to grow rapidly, achieving a growth rate of 36.9% during the period 1941–51.[68] After independence in 1947, Tiruchirappalli fell behind other cities such as Salem and Coimbatore in terms of growth.[69][70][71] Tiruchirappalli remained a part of Madras State, which was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1969.[72] The city underwent extensive economic development in the 1960s with the commissioning of Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited.[73][74] In the early 1980s, M. G. Ramachandran, then Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu drafted a plan to move the state's administrative headquarters to Tiruchirappalli.[75] A satellite town was developed near Navalpattu on the outskirts of the city,[75] but the proposed move was shelved by successive governments.[76]

Like much of Tamil Nadu, Tiruchirappalli remains prone to communal tensions based on religion and ethnicity. There have been occasional outbreaks of violence against Sri Lankans. In 2009, the offices of a Sri Lankan airline were attacked in the city.[77][78] In September 2012, two groups of Sri Lankan pilgrims who had visited the Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health in Velankanni and the Poondi Madha Basilica had their buses attacked in Tiruchirappalli by a group of Tamil activists.[79][80][81] Owing to a series of terrorist attacks in Indian cities since 2000, security has been increased at sites such as Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple.[82]

Geography and climate

Tiruchirappalli is situated in central south-eastern India, almost at the geographic centre of the state of Tamil Nadu. The Cauvery Delta begins to form 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) west of the city where the river divides into two streams—the Kaveri and the Kollidam—to form the island of Srirangam.[68][83][84] By road it is 912 kilometres (567 mi) south of Hyderabad, 322 kilometres (200 mi) south-west of Chennai and 331 kilometres (206 mi) south-east of Bangalore.[85] The topology of Tiruchirappalli is almost flat with an average elevation of 88 metres (289 ft). A few isolated hillocks rise above the surface,[86] the highest of which is the Rockfort;[87][88] its estimated age of 3,800 million years makes it one of the oldest rocks in the world.[89][90] Other prominent hillocks include the Golden Rock, Khajamalai,[91] and one each at Uyyakondan Thirumalai and Thiruverumbur.[92]

Apart from Kaveri and its tributary Kollidam,[93] the city is also drained by the Uyyakondan Channel, Koraiyar and Kudamurutti river channels.[94] The land immediately surrounding the Kaveri River—which crosses Tiruchirappalli from west to east—consists of deposits of fertile alluvial soil[95] on which crops such as finger millet and maize are cultivated.[96] Further south, the surface is covered by poor-quality black soil.[95] A belt of Cretaceous rock known as the Trichinopoly Group runs to the north-east of the city,[97] and to the south-east there are layers of archaean rocks, granite and gneiss covered by a thin bed of conglomeratic laterite.[87] The region falls under Seismic Zone III, which is moderately vulnerable to earthquakes.[98]

Urban structure

The city of Tiruchirappalli lies on the plains between the Shevaroy Hills to the north and the Palani Hills to the south and south-west.[99] Tiruchirappalli is completely surrounded by agricultural fields.[70] Densely populated industrial and residential areas have recently been built in the northern part of the city, and the southern edge also has residential areas.[70] The older part of Tiruchirappalli, within the Rockfort, is unplanned and congested while the adjoining newer sections are better executed.[100] Many of the old houses in Srirangam were constructed according to the shilpa sastras, the canonical texts of Hindu temple architecture.[101]

Climate

Tiruchirappalli experiences a dry-summer tropical savanna climate (Koppen climate classification: As), with no major change in temperature between summer and winter.[102][103] The climate is generally characterised by high temperature and low humidity.[104] With an annual mean temperature of 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) and monthly average temperatures ranging between 25 °C (77 °F) and 32 °C (90 °F),[102] the city is the hottest in the state.[105] The warmest months are from April to June,[106] when the city experiences frequent dust storms.[106] As of November 2013, the highest temperature ever recorded in Tiruchirappalli was 43.9 °C (111.0 °F), which occurred on 2 May 1896;[107] the lowest was observed on 6 February 1884 at 13.9 °C (57.0 °F).[108][109] The high temperatures in the city have been attributed to the presence of two rivers—Kaveri and Kollidam—[d]and the absence of greenery around the city.[105] As Tiruchirappalli is on the Deccan Plateau the days are extremely warm and dry; evenings are cooler because of cold winds that blow from the south-east.[102] From June to September, the city experiences a moderate climate tempered by heavy rain and thundershowers. Rainfall is heaviest between October and December because of the north-east monsoon winds, and from December to February the climate is cool and moist.[102] The average annual rainfall is 841.9 mm (33.15 in),[110] slightly lower than the state's average of 945 mm (37.2 in).[111] Fog and dew are rare and occur only during the winter season.[106]

Demographics

According to the 2011 Indian census, Tiruchirappalli had a population of 847,387,[a] 9.4% of whom were under the age of six, living in 214,529 families within the municipal corporation limits. The recorded population density was 5,768/km2 (14,940/sq mi) while the sex ratio was 975 males for every 1,000 females.[10] The Tiruchirappalli urban agglomeration had a population of 1,022,518, and was ranked the fourth largest in Tamil Nadu and the 53rd in India as of 2011.[2] The city had an average literacy rate of 91.37%,[10] significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.[116] Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 10.48% and 0.27% of the population respectively.[10] There were 228,518 people, roughly constituting about 26.96% of the total population, who lived in slums in the city.[117] The daily floating population of the city was estimated at around 250,000.[118]

The city's population is predominantly Hindu.[119] Muslims constitute about twenty percent,[120] and there is also a considerable Christian population. Sikhs and Jains are present in smaller numbers.[121][122] Roman Catholics in Tiruchirappalli are affiliated to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Tiruchirapalli while Protestants are affiliated to the Trichy–Tanjore Diocese of the Church of South India.[123][124]

The most widely spoken language is Tamil,[125] but there are significant numbers of Telugu,[126] Gujarati,[127] Kannada,[128] Malayalam[129] and Hindi speakers.[130] Saurashtra is also spoken by some significant minorities.[131] The standard dialect of Tamil spoken is the Central Tamil dialect.[132][133] There is also a substantial population of Anglo-Indians,[e] and Sri Lankan Tamil migrants, most of whom are housed in refugee camps on the outskirts of the city.[136][137]

Covering 18 square kilometres (6.9 sq mi), the municipality of Tiruchirappalli was inaugurated under the Town Improvements Act 1865 on 1 November 1866;[145] it originally consisted of two ex-officers and nine nominated members.[146] Council elections were introduced in 1877 and the first chairman was elected in 1889.[146] The municipality was upgraded to a municipal corporation as per the Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Act 1994[147] by inclusion of the erstwhile Srirangam and Golden Rock municipalities.[148] Covering 167.23 square kilometres (64.57 sq mi),[a][149] the municipal corporation comprises 65 wards and four administrative zones; these are Srirangam, Ariyamangalam, Golden Rock and Abhishekapuram.[150]

Tiruchirappalli City Municipal Corporation Council, the legislative body, comprises 65 councillors elected from each of the 65 wards and is headed by a mayor assisted by a Deputy Mayor.[151][152] The executive wing has seven departments—general administration, revenue, town planning, engineering, public health, information technology and personnel—and is headed by a City Commissioner. The Commissioner is assisted by two executive engineers for the east and west sections, and Assistant Commissioners for personnel, accounts and revenue departments, a public relations officer, a city engineer, a city health officer and an Assistant Commissioner for each of the four zones.[153] A Local Planning Authority for Tiruchirappalli was created on 5 April 1974 as per the Tamil Nadu Town and Country Planning Act of 1971 with the District Collector of Tiruchirappalli as chairman and the Assistant Director of Town and Country Planning as its member secretary.[154]

The city of Tiruchirappalli is represented in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly by Nine elected members, one each for the Tiruchirappalli East (State Assembly Constituency), Tiruchirappalli West (State Assembly Constituency), Srirangam, Thiruverumbur, Musiri, Lalgudi, Manapparai, Thuraiyur and Manachanallur constituencies.[155][156] J.Jayalalithaa, former chief minister of Tamil Nadu, represented the Srirangam constituency between 2011 and 2015.[157] Tiruchirappalli is also part of the Tiruchirappalli Lok Sabha constituency and once every five years, elects a member to the Lok Sabha—the lower house of the Parliament of India.[156][158] The Lok Sabha seat has been held by the Indian National Congress for four terms (1957–62,[159] 1984–89,[160] 1989–91[161] and 1991–96[162]), the Communist Party of India (1962–67,[163] 1971–77[164] and 1977–80[165]) and the All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (2001–04, 2009–14 and 2014–present) for three terms each[166]) and Bharatiya Janata Party (1998–99[167] and 1999–2001[168]) for two terms each. Candidates from the Communist Party of India,[169] Tamil Maanila Congress and the Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam[170] have won once each. Indian politician Rangarajan Kumaramangalam, who served as the Minister of Power in the government of Atal Bihari Vajpayee,[171] was elected to the Lok Sabha from Tiruchirappalli in the 1998 and 1999 elections.[167][168]

Law and order are enforced by the Tamil Nadu police, which for administrative purposes, has constituted Tiruchirappalli city as a separate district, divided into 18 zonal offices and units, with a total of 38 police stations.[172] The Tiruchirappalli city police force is headed by a Commissioner of police assisted by Deputy Commissioners.[173] Law and order in suburban areas is enforced by the Tiruchirappalli district police.[174] It has the lowest proportion of rape and murder cases in the state.[175]

Utility services

Electricity supply to the city is regulated and distributed by the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB).[176] Tiruchirappalli is the headquarters of the Trichy region of TNEB. The city and its suburbs form the Trichy Metro Electricity Distribution Circle, which is subdivided into six divisions.[176] A chief distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters at Tennur.[176] Water supply is provided by the Tiruchirappalli City Corporation.[177] The city gets its drinking water supply from the Kaveri River and 1,470 bore wells linked to 60 service reservoirs in and around the city.[178] Four of the six head works from which the city gets its water supply are maintained by the municipal corporation and the rest by other agencies.[179]

Pollution has been a major concern in Tiruchirappalli. The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board has set up five stations in the city to check the quality of air.[180] As of 2012, about 432 tonnes (432,000 kg) of solid waste are produced in the city every day.[181] Solid waste management in the city is handled by the corporation; places such as the Gandhi Market, Central Bus terminus and the Chathram bus terminus are being monitored by other agencies.[179] The principal landfill is at Ariyamangalam.[182] Waste water management in the Trichy-Srirangam underground drainage (UGD) areas is handled by the Tamil Nadu Water Supply and Drainage Board (TWAD) and in other areas by the Tiruchirappalli Municipal Corporation.[179] As of 2013, there were a total of 40,580 UGD connections maintained by the municipal corporation.[183] In 2020, it is estimated that 31% of the city is covered under a networked sewage system, however, as of September 2020 the corporation has fast-tracked its project to cover the entire city, funded jointly by urban local body, Tamil Nadu Urban Finance and Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd (Tufidco) and Asian Development Bank.[184] The high toxicity of the waste water released by the Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL) is a major cause of concern for the corporation.[185] The corporation's annual expenditure for the year 2010–11 was estimated to be ₹1,559.4 million (equivalent to ₹2.7 billion or US$36 million in 2020).[186] In 2013, researchers from Bharathidasan University assessed water quality in the Tiruchirappalli area and concluded that although the quality of the groundwater was suitable for human consumption, the quality of the pond water in the city was "not fit for human usage, agricultural or industrial purposes".[187] Under the National Urban Sanitation Policy, Tiruchirappalli was ranked sixth in India and first in Tamil Nadu on the basis of sanitation for the year 2009–10.[188] In January 2010, Tiruchirappalli became the first city in India where open defecation was prevented in all its slums.[189] In a 2016 survey conducted by the Ministry of Urban Development, as a part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan campaign, Tiruchirappalli was ranked third in the list of cleanest cities in India.[190] Under the ease of living index 2018 published by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Tiruchirappalli was ranked twelfth in India and first in Tamil Nadu among the 111 cities considered.[7] The ranking framework was categorised into four pillars, namely Institutional, Social, Economic and Physical, which comprised 78 indicators such as urban transport, waste water management, solid waste management and governance. Tiruchirappalli comes under the Tiruchi Telecom District of the Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited (BSNL), India's state-owned telecom and internet services provider.[191] There are about 20,000 business telephone subscribers in the city.[192] Both Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) and Code division multiple access (CDMA) mobile services are available.[193] BSNL also provides broadband internet services.[194] BSNL began offering wireless internet services with the commencement of Evolution-Data Optimized (EVDO) transmission in 2008.[193] Tiruchirappalli is one of the few cities in India where BSNL's Caller Line Identification (CLI)-based internet service Netone is available.[195] Softnet (STPI), Tata VSNL, Bharti and Reliance are other major broadband internet service providers in the city.[196] Tiruchirappalli has a regional passport office, the second in Tamil Nadu, which commenced its operations on 23 March 1983 bifurcated from Chennai region.[197] After Coimbatore and Madurai regional office were established in late 2000s by bifurcating from Trichy region, currently the office caters to the needs of Trichy and seven adjacent districts namely, Karur, Nagappattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Ariyalur and Tiruvarur.[198] Economy During British rule, Tiruchirappalli was known for its tanneries, cigar-manufacturing units and oil presses.[199] At its peak, more than 12 million cigars were manufactured and exported annually.[199] Tanned hides and skins from Tiruchirappalli were exported to the United Kingdom.[199] The city has a number of retail and wholesale markets, the most prominent among them being the Gandhi Market, which also serves people from other parts of the district.[200][201][202] Other notable markets in the city are the flower bazaar in Srirangam[202] and the mango market at Mambazha Salai.[203] The suburb of Manachanallur is known for its rice mills, where polished Ponni rice is produced.[204] Tiruchirappalli is a major engineering equipment manufacturing and fabrication hub in India.[74] The Golden Rock Railway Workshop, which moved to Tiruchirappalli from Nagapattinam in 1928, is one of the three railway workshop–cum–production units in Tamil Nadu.[205] The workshops produced 650 conventional and low-container flat wagons during 2007–2008.[206] A high-pressure boiler manufacturing plant was set up by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), India's largest public sector engineering company, in May 1965.[207][208] This was followed by a seamless steel plant and a boiler auxiliaries plant.[209] In 2010, the Tiruchirappalli unit of the company contributed to nearly 30 per cent of its total sales, making it the largest of all units.[210] As of 2011, the Tiruchirappalli division employed about 10,000 people,[210] and is supported by a number of ancillary industries producing almost 250,000 tonnes (250,000,000 kg) of fabricated materials.[74] These ancillary units together with BHEL contribute nearly 60 per cent of India's steel fabrication,[74] earning the city the title, "Energy equipment and fabrication capital of India".[211] Other important industries in Tiruchirappalli include Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited (TDCL), which was established at Senthaneerpuram in the former Golden Rock municipality in 1966.[212] and the Trichy Steel Rolling Mills, which was started as a private limited company on 27 June 1961.[213] The Trichy Distilleries and Chemicals Limited manufactures rectified spirit,[212] acetaldehyde,[212] acetic acid,[212] acetic anhydride[214] and ethyl acetate. It is one of the biggest private sector distilleries in Tamil Nadu and produced 13.5 megalitres (3.0 million imperial gallons) of spirit alcohol between December 2005 and November 2006.[215] The Ordnance Factories Board runs a weapons manufacturing unit and a Heavy Alloy Penetrator Project (HAPP) facility;[216] the latter was set up in the late 1980s and consists of a flexible manufacturing system (FMS)—the first of its kind in India.[217][218][219] From the late 1980s, a synthetic gem industry was developed in the city; the gemstones are cut and polished in Tiruchirappalli district and in Pudukottai district.[220] In 1990, the Indian government launched a scheme to increase employment by boosting the production of American diamonds and training local artisans in semi-automated machinery and technology. The local gem industry was reportedly generating annual revenues of ₹100 million (equivalent to ₹510 million or US$6.7 million in 2020) by the mid-1990s.[221] Concerns have been raised over the employment of children aged 9–14 in the gem cutting and polishing industry.[221][222] As a result, in 1996, Tiruchirappalli district was selected to be involved in the National Child Labour Project and in the running of special schools to educate working children.[223]

As of December 2010, the Tiruchirappalli region annually exports around ₹262.1 million (equivalent to ₹500 million or US$6.6 million in 2020) of software.[224][225] The ELCOT IT Park Trichy—the city's first IT park—commissioned at a cost of ₹600 million (equivalent to ₹1.1 billion or US$15 million in 2020) was inaugurated in December 2010.[226][227] Set up by the Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu, the park occupies an area of 59.74 hectares (147.6 acres) and constitutes a Special Economic Zone.[227][228]

Employing a workforce of over 1,500, more than six companies including Vuram, iLink Systems Pvt. Ltd., Scientific Publishing Company, Vdart Technologies, GI Tech Gaming Co. India Pvt. Ltd., VR Della IT Services Pvt. Ltd., and the Tamil Nadu Disaster Recovery Centre function out of the existing building, occupying the entire built-up space.[229] The ELCOT IT Park Trichy is in close proximity to the Tiruchi International Airport. The facility was highlighted through the two editions of Global Investors Meet and became a key factor for the demand for the built-up space.[230]

Culture

A resident of Tiruchirappalli is generally referred to as a Tiruchiite.[231] Situated at the edge of the Kaveri Delta, the culture of Tiruchirappalli is predominantly Brahminical, prevalent elsewhere in the delta.[232] With a substantial population of students and migrant industrial workers from different parts of India, Tiruchirappalli has a more cosmopolitan outlook than the surrounding countryside.[233][234] The main festival celebrated in Tiruchirappalli is Pongal, a regional harvest festival celebrated during January. As part of the Pongal celebrations, Jallikattu, a bull-taming village sport played on the last day of the festival,[235] is occasionally held on the outskirts of the city.[236] Aadi Perukku,[237] Samayapuram flower festival,[238] Vaikunta Ekadasi,[239] Srirangam car festival,[240] and the Teppakulam float festival are some of the prominent festivals that are held locally.[241] Bakrid and Eid al-Fitr are also widely celebrated, owing to the substantial number of Muslims in the city.[242][243] Nationwide festivals such as the Gregorian New Year,[244] Christmas, Deepavali[245] and Holi[246] are also celebrated in Tiruchirappalli.

The 12th century Tamil epic Kambaramayanam was first recited at the Ranganathaswamy temple in Srirangam. In 1771, Rama Natakam, a musical drama written Arunachala Kavi and based on the Ramayana, was also performed there.[247] Tiruchirappalli was home to some of the prominent Carnatic musicians—including Lalgudi Jayaraman, Srirangam Kannan and A. K. C. Natarajan—and scholars such as T. S. Murugesan Pillai, Kundalam Rangachariar and K. A. P. Viswanatham.[248] Composers, poets and vocalists such as G. Ramanathan, T. K. Ramamoorthy,[249] Vaali and P. Madhuri, who have made significant contributions to Tamil film music hail from the city.[250][251]

Textile weaving, leather-work and gem cutting are some of the important crafts practised in Tiruchirappalli.[252] Wooden idols of Hindu gods and goddesses are sold at Poompuhar, the crafts emporium run by the Government of Tamil Nadu.[253] The Trichy Travel Federation (TTF) was formed on 5 May 2009 to promote Tiruchirappalli as a favourable tourist destination.[254] The federation organises an annual food festival called Suvai.[255] Lack of infrastructure has been a major deterrent to the city's tourism industry.[256][257]

Landmarks

Once a part of the Chola kingdom, Tiruchirappalli has a number of exquisitely sculpted temples and fortresses.[259]

Most of the temples, including the Rockfort temples, the Ranganathaswamy Temple at Srirangam, the Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval, the Samayapuram Mariamman Temple, the Erumbeeswarar Temple, Gneeliwaneswarar Temple at Thiruppaingneeli[260] and the temples in Urayur, are built in the Dravidian style of architecture;[261] the Ranganathaswamy Temple and Jambukeswarar Temple are often counted among the best examples of this style.[262][263][264] The rock-cut cave temples of the Rockfort, along with the gateway and the Erumbeeswarar Temple, are listed as monuments of national importance by the Archaeological Survey of India.[265]

Considered one of the symbols of Tiruchirappalli, the Rockfort is a fortress which stands atop a 273-foot-high rock.[266] It consists of a set of monolithic rocks accommodating many rock-cut cave temples. Originally built by the Pallavas, it was later reconstructed by the Madurai Nayaks and Vijayanagara rulers. The temple complex has three shrines, two of which are dedicated to Lord Ganesha, one at the foot and the Ucchi Pillayar Temple at the top, and the Thayumanavar Temple between them. The Thayumanavar temple, the largest of the three, houses a shrine for Parvati as well as the main deity. As per a legend, Vayu Bhaghvan and Adiseshan had a dispute to find out who is superior, to prove the superiority adiseshan encircled the Kailasam, Vayu tried to remove this encircle by creating santamarutham (Twister). Because of the santamarutham, eight kodumudigal (parts) fell from kailasam into eight different places which are Thirugonamalai (Trincomalee, Sri Lanka), Thirukalahasti, Thiruchiramalai (Rock fort), Thiruenkoimalai, Rajathagiri, Neerthagiri, Ratnagiri, and Swethagiri Thirupangeeli.[267][268]

The Rockfort is visible from almost every part of the city's north.[89] The Teppakulam at the foot of the Rockfort is surrounded by bazaars.[269] It has a mandapa at its centre.[270]

The Ranganathaswamy Temple, dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu, is located on the island of Srirangam.[89] Often cited as the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world,[89] it has a perimeter of 4,116 metres (13,504 ft) and occupies 156 acres (630,000 m2).[271] Considered to be among the 108 Divya Desams (Holy shrines of Lord Vishnu),[272] the temple is believed to house the mortal remains of the Vaishnavite saint and philosopher Ramanujacharya.[273] Originally built by the Cholas,[274] the temple was later renovated by the Pandyas, the Hoysalas, the Madurai Nayaks and the Vijayanagar empire between the 9th and 16th centuries AD.[275] There are 21 gopurams (towers),[276] of which the Rajagopuram is 236 feet (72 m).[277] According to the Limca Book of Records, it was the tallest temple tower in the world until 1999.[278]

The Jambukeswarar Temple at Thiruvanaikkaval and the Erumbeeswarar Temple at Thiruverumbur were built in the rule of the Medieval Cholas.[279] [280] The Jambukeswarar Temple is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalams dedicated to Lord Shiva; it is the fifth largest temple complex in Tamil Nadu.[281] The city's main mosque is the Nadir Shah Mosque or Nathar Shah mosque, which encloses the tomb of the 10th century Muslim saint Nadir Shah.[282] The Christ Church constructed by the German Protestant missionary Christian Friedrich Schwarz in 1766 and the Our Lady of Lourdes Church are noted examples of Gothic Revival architecture in the city.[283]

The Chokkanatha Nayak Palace, which houses the Rani Mangammal Mahal, was built by the Madurai Nayaks in the 17th century; it has now been converted into a museum.[284] The Nawab's palace,[285] the Railway Heritage Centre,[286] the Upper Anaicut constructed by Sir Arthur Cotton, and the world's oldest functional dam, the Grand Anaicut, are some of the other important structures in Tiruchirappalli.[287][288]

Education

Tiruchirappalli has been recognised in India as an important educational centre since the time of British rule.[289][290][291] St. Joseph's College, which opened in Nagapattinam in 1846 and transferred to Tiruchirappalli in 1883, is one of the oldest educational institutions in South India.[292] The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) college, established in 1883, is a premium missionary institution in the city.[289]

As of 2013, Tiruchirappalli has 45 arts and science colleges, 40 polytechnic colleges and 13 colleges that offer management education. National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli is located in a area of 800 acres. National Institutional Ranking Framework ranked this NIT the first among other others in India.[293] The St. Joseph's College, National College,[294] Bishop Heber College,[295] Jamal Mohamed College[296] and the Government Law College are prominent colleges providing higher education in the arts and sciences.[297] There are approximately 35 engineering colleges in and around the city.[225] The National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli established by the government in 1964 as the Regional Engineering College,[298] has a campus at Thuvakudi on the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli.[299]

The Anbil Dharmalingam Agricultural College and Research Institute was established as a constituent college of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1989, and the National Research Centre for Banana offer higher education and research in agriculture.[300] The Tiruchirappalli branch of Anna University was established after the bifurcation of Anna University in 2007.[301] 64 self-financing colleges which offer courses in engineering, architecture, management and computer applications in the districts of Ariyalur, Cuddalore, Nagapattinam, Perambalur, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur and Tiruvarur are affiliated to Anna University.[302] The SRM Group of Colleges established the SRM Institute of Science and Technology at Irungalur near Tiruchirappalli; this was followed by Chennai Medical College and Hospital in 2007. A proposal by the group to include the institutions in SRM University is under review by the Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Government of India.[303]

The Bharathidasan University was established in Tiruchirappalli in 1982 and controls 104 colleges in Tiruchirappalli district and seven neighbouring districts.[304][305] The university also runs a management school, the Bharathidasan Institute of Management in the city in collaboration with BHEL.[306] The Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli was set up during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan, along with five other IIMs opened during the 2011–12 academic season.[307][308] In 2013, the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) approved Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT),[309] and the Tamil Nadu National Law School, modelled on the National Law School of India University, both started their operations in the city.[310] The city is also the regional headquarters of the Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha for the state of Tamil Nadu.[311]

There are 200 higher secondary schools in Tiruchirappalli;[293] notable ones are the St. Johns Vestry Anglo Indian Higher Secondary School,[312] Campion Anglo-Indian Higher Secondary School,[313] St Joseph's Anglo Indian Girls Higher Secondary School,[314] Railway Mixed Higher Secondary School, Higher Secondary School for Boys, Srirangam[315] and RSK Higher Secondary School.[316][317]

Notable people who were either born or educated at Tiruchirappalli include C. V. Raman,[318] A. P. J. Abdul Kalam,[319] Sujatha, Vaali, G. N. Ramachandran, and former President of India R. Venkataraman.[304]

Sports

Media

According to the Registrar of Newspapers in India, more than 100 newspapers have been registered in Tiruchirappalli as of November 2013.[338] The weekly newspaper Wednesday Review, founded in 1905, is the first prominent journal to be published in Tiruchirappalli.[339] Among the major English-language newspapers being published in Tiruchirappalli are The Hindu which launched a Tiruchirappalli edition in 2004,[340] and The New Indian Express, which was publishing in Tiruchirappalli before The Hindu.[341] Some of the important Tamil-language newspapers that publish a Tiruchirappalli edition are Dina Thanthi[342] Dina Mani,[343] Dina Malar, Malai Malar, Dinakaran,[344] Tamil Murasu and Tamil Sudar.[338] The popular Tamil weekly Ananda Vikatan launched a local supplement for Tiruchirappalli in 2011.[345]

The first radio transmission station in Tiruchirappalli was opened by All India Radio (AIR) on 16 May 1939.[346][347] AIR started providing direct-to-home enabled radio broadcasting service from 2006.[348] In 2007, the AIR launched Ragam, a separate Carnatic music station, from the city.[349] Apart from the government-owned AIR, private FM radio stations such as Hello and Suryan FM and Mirchi 95.0 from Tiruchirappalli.[350] Indira Gandhi National Open University's Gyan Vani started broadcasting from the city in 2008.[351] Tiruchirappalli's first campus community radio station was started by Holy Cross College on 22 December 2006.[352]

Television broadcasting from Chennai was started on 15 August 1975.[353] Satellite television channels have been available since 1991.[354] Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus[355][356][357] and various other operators.[358]

Transport

The most commonly used modes of local transport in Tiruchirappalli are the state government-owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation (TNSTC) buses, and auto rickshaws.[359][360] Tiruchirappalli forms a part of the Kumbakonam division of the TNSTC.[361] The city has two major bus termini; Chatram Bus Stand and Central Bus Stand, both of which operate intercity services and local transport to suburban areas.[362]

Tiruchirappalli sits at the confluence of two major National Highways—NH 45 and NH 67.[363] NH 45 is one of the most congested highways in south India and carries almost 10,000 lorries on the Tiruchirappalli–Chennai stretch every night.[364] Other National Highways originating in the city are NH 45B, NH 210 and NH 227.[365][366][367] State highways that start from the city include SH 25 and SH 62.[368] Tiruchirappalli has 715.85 km (444.81 mi) of road maintained by the municipal corporation.[369] A semi-ring road connecting all the National Highways is being constructed to ease traffic congestion in the city.[370] As of 2013, approximately 328,000 two-wheelers, 93,500 cars and 10,000 public transport vehicles operate within the city limits,[180] apart from the 1,500 inter-city buses that pass through Tiruchirappalli daily.[149] Tiruchirappalli suffers from traffic congestion mainly because of its narrow roads and absence of an integrated bus station.[149][371]

Passenger trains also carry a significant number of passengers from nearby towns.[359] The Great Southern of India Railway Company was established in 1853 with its headquarters at England.[372] In 1859, the company constructed its first railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli and Nagapattinam.[372] The company merged with the Carnatic Railway Company in 1874 to form the South Indian Railway Company with Tiruchirappalli as its headquarters.[373][374] The city retained the position until 1908 when the company's headquarters was transferred to Madras.[375] Tiruchirappalli Junction is one of the busiest in India.[376] It constitutes a separate division of the Southern Railway.[377] Tiruchirappalli has rail connectivity with most important cities and towns in India.[366] Other railway stations in the city include Tiruchirappalli Fort, Tiruchirappalli Town, Srirangam, Tiruchirappalli Palakkarai and Golden Rock (Ponmalai).[378][379]

Tiruchirappalli is served by Tiruchirappalli International Airport (IATA: TRZ, ICAO: VOTR),[380] 5 km (3.1 mi) from the city centre.[381][382] The airport handles fivefold more international air traffic than domestic services, making it the only airport in India with this huge variation. It serves as a gateway to immigrants from South-east Asian countries[383] There are regular flights to Chennai,[384] Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Colombo,[385] Dubai, Kuala Lumpur,[386] and Singapore.[387] The airport handled more than 1 million passengers and 2012 tonnes of cargo during the fiscal year 2013–14.[388]

## Plus–minus sign - Wikipedia

Plus–minus sign. For other uses, see plus-minus (disambiguation). The plus–minus sign, ±, is a mathematical symbol with multiple meanings. In mathematics, it generally indicates a choice of exactly two possible values, one of which is obtained ….
From: en.wikipedia.org

Mathematical symbol: ±

The plus–minus sign, ±, is a mathematical symbol with multiple meanings.

History

A version of the sign, including also the French word ou ("or"), was used in its mathematical meaning by Albert Girard in 1626, and the sign in its modern form was used as early as 1631, in William Oughtred's Clavis Mathematicae.[6]

Usage In mathematics

In mathematical formulas, the ± symbol may be used to indicate a symbol that may be replaced by either the plus and minus signs, + or −, allowing the formula to represent two values or two equations.[7]

For example, given the equation x2 = 9, one may give the solution as x = ±3. This indicates that the equation has two solutions, each of which may be obtained by replacing this equation by one of the two equations x = +3 or x = −3. Only one of these two replaced equations is true for any valid solution. A common use of this notation is found in the quadratic formula

which describes the two solutions to the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Similarly, the trigonometric identity

can be interpreted as a shorthand for two equations: one with + on both sides of the equation, and one with − on both sides. The two copies of the ± sign in this identity must both be replaced in the same way: it is not valid to replace one of them with + and the other of them with −. In contrast to the quadratic formula example, both of the equations described by this identity are simultaneously valid.

The minus–plus sign, ∓, is generally used in conjunction with the ± sign, in such expressions as x ± y ∓ z, which can be interpreted as meaning x + y − z or x − y + z, but not x + y + z nor x − y − z. The upper − in ∓ is considered to be associated to the + of ± (and similarly for the two lower symbols), even though there is no visual indication of the dependency.

However, the ± sign is generally preferred over the ∓ sign, so if both of them appear in an equation, it is safe to assume that they are linked. On the other hand, if there are two instances of the ± sign in an expression, without a ∓, it is impossible to tell from notation alone whether the intended interpretation is as two or four distinct expressions.

The original expression can be rewritten as x ± (y − z) to avoid confusion, but cases such as the trigonometric identity are most neatly written using the "∓" sign:

which represents the two equations:

Another example where the minus–plus sign appears is

A third related usage is found in this presentation of the formula for the Taylor series of the sine function:

Here, the plus-or-minus sign indicates that the term may be added or subtracted, in this case depending on whether n is odd or even, the rule can be deduced from the first few terms. A more rigorous presentation of the same formula would multiply each term by a factor of (−1), which gives +1 when n is even, and −1 when n is odd. In older texts one occasionally finds (−), which means the same.

When the standard presumption that the plus-or-minus signs all take on the same value of +1 or all −1  is not true, then the line of text that immediately follows the equation must contain a brief description of the actual connection, if any, most often of the form “where the ‘±’ signs are independent” or similar. If a brief, simple description is not possible, the equation must be re-written to provide clarity; e.g. by introducing variables such as s1, s2, ... and specifying a value of +1 or −1 separately for each, or some appropriate relation, like s 3 = s 1 ⋅ ( s 2 ) n , {\displaystyle s_{3}=s_{1}\cdot (s_{2})^{n}\,,} or similar.

In statistics

The use of ± for an approximation is most commonly encountered in presenting the numerical value of a quantity, together with its tolerance or its statistical margin of error.[2] For example, 5.7 ± 0.2 may be anywhere in the range from 5.5 to 5.9 inclusive. In scientific usage, it sometimes refers to a probability of being within the stated interval, usually corresponding to either 1 or 2 standard deviations (a probability of 68.3% or 95.4% in a normal distribution).

Operations involving uncertain values should always try to preserve the uncertainty—in order to avoid propagation of error. If   n = a ± b , {\displaystyle ~n=a\pm b\;,} any operation of the form   m = f ( n )   {\displaystyle ~m=f(n)~} must return a value of the form   m = c ± d   {\displaystyle ~m=c\pm d~} , where c is f ( n ) {\displaystyle \,f(n)\,} and d is range updated using interval arithmetic.

A percentage may also be used to indicate the error margin. For example, 230 ±10% V refers to a voltage within 10% of either side of 230 V (from 207 V to 253 V inclusive).[citation needed] Separate values for the upper and lower bounds may also be used. For example, to indicate that a value is most likely 5.7, but may be as high as 5.9 or as low as 5.6, one may write 5.7+0.2−0.1.

In chess

The symbols ± and ∓ are used in chess notation to denote an advantage for white and black, respectively. However, the more common chess notation would be to only use + and –.[5] If several different symbols are used together, then the symbols + and − denote a clearer advantage than ± and ∓. When finer evaluation is desired, three pairs of symbols are used: ⩲ and ⩱ for only a slight advantage; ± and ∓ for a significant advantage; and +– and –+ for a potentially winning advantage, in each case for white or black respectively.[8]

Encodings Typing Similar characters

The plus–minus sign resembles the Chinese characters 土 (Radical 32) and 士 (Radical 33), whereas the minus–plus sign resembles 干 (Radical 51).

## Why is ñ changing to Ã±? - stackoverflow.com

Sep 12, 2012 · Character ñ (U+00F1) is encoded using UTF-8 as the two bytes 11000011 10110001 ( 0xC3 0xB1 ). These two bytes are decoded using ISO 8859-1 as the two characters Ã±. So, you are most likely using UTF-8 to encode the character as bytes, and ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1, as guessed by Sajmon) to decode the bytes as characters. Show activity on this post.I don't understand whenever I save any string that contains n it changes to A±. Even in the database the n is changed to A±. Examples: n becomes A±. Nino becomes NiA±o. I don't have any clue what.
From: stackoverflow.com

Character n (U+00F1) is encoded using UTF-8 as the two bytes 11000011 10110001 (0xC3 0xB1).

These two bytes are decoded using ISO 8859-1 as the two characters A±.

So, you are most likely using UTF-8 to encode the character as bytes, and ISO 8859-1 (Latin-1, as guessed by Sajmon) to decode the bytes as characters.

## Geochemistry and U–Pb SHRIMP zircon chronology of ...

Jul 01, 2013 · The Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ) (Radhakrishna and Ramakrishnan, 1988, Radhakrishna, 1989, Acharyya and Roy, 2000) is a continental-scale tectonic zone that forms a suture between the Bundelkhand Craton in the north and the Dharwar Craton in the south (Fig. 1a).However, CITZ had an earlier orogenic history and has been considered as an integral part …The northern part of Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ) is delineated by an arc-shaped supracrustal belt commonly referred to as Mahakoshal Belt, whic….
From: www.sciencedirect.com

The Neoproterozoic Gharib Granitoid Complex (GGC), in the North Eastern Desert (NED) of Egypt, is characterized by the occurrence of varieties of granitoids. Monzogranite, the most abundant granite variety, contains abundant magmatic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) of mafic to intermediate composition. The MMEs are more mafic than their host and marked by a greater amount of amphibole and biotite. They are finer grained and have porphyritic/poikilitic textures.

The sharp, crenulated, and fine-grained quenched contacts of the elongated, rounded, and ellipsoid form of the MMEs with their felsic host indicate rapid cooling during a magma mixing/mingling event. Micro-textural evidence supports the mechanical transfer of minerals that crystallized in felsic magma to the mafic melt (e.g., feldspar phenocrysts cross-cutting the MME-host boundaries, stubby apatite, quartz ocelli, and poikilitic outermost rims of K-feldspar phenocrysts), supercooling/quenching process (e.g., acicular apatite and elongated hornblende and biotite crystals), and disequilibrium growth (e.g., hornblende-biotite clots replaced early crystallized clinopyroxene), which also favour a magma mingling/mixing origin. Linear to curvilinear chemical variations of the MMEs and the host monzogranites on Harker diagrams, highly similar trace element contents, and Sr-Nd isotopic systematics together with mineral-chemical features also support mixing/mingling as the main process in magma genesis and strongly suggest that the MMEs were supercooled hybrid globules within cooler, partially crystallized host felsic magma. The crust-like geochemical signatures (i.e., SiO2 content, metaluminous nature, and lack of upper crustal xenoliths and typical peraluminous minerals), along with low [MMEs: (87Sr/86Sr)initial = 0.70136–0.70373; monzogranites: (87Sr/86Sr)initial = 0.70202–0.70320)] along with zircon and apatite U-Pb age data indicate the possible involvement of juvenile lower continental crust (LCC) of the Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) in their genesis. The medium- to high-K calc-alkaline affinity, the LILE enrichment, and the HFSE depletion along with low Nb/La ratios and positive εNd(t) (MMEs = +4.01 - +5.62, monzogranites = +2.29 - +6.03) indicate the contribution of depleted lithospheric mantle in the magma genesis, whereas the low δEu and fairly high δCe values, stable La/Sm, and variable Sr/Th ratios in apatites from the monzogranites and MMEs indicate the contribution of volatile/fluids from the remnants of the oceanic slab in facilitating melting in the source region. The genesis of the monzogranites and MMEs started with asthenosphere upwelling, followed by melting of the remnants of lithospheric mantle, and underplating of mantle magma, which led to partial melting of the LCC. Multi-element modelling postulates that the low degree mixing between partially crystallized mantle magma and LCC-derived felsic melt (Fmix ∼ 0.1) could produce the parent magma for the monzogranites. Further mixing/mingling of the crystal-charged monzogranite parent magma with new pulses of mafic melts (Fmix ∼ 0.25) developed a hybrid zone and formed the hybrid MMEs. Thus, the final episode of the ANS evolution was associated with a complex post-collisional interplay between asthenosphere, lithospheric mantle, and the LCC caused by the removal of delaminated lithospheric root and dense lower crust following the collision between East and West Gondwana in the Neoproterozoic time.

## DeterminationofREEsandDifficultTraceElements (Be,Ge,Mo,Sn ...

143 *Correspondingauthor. E-mail:[email protected] Atomic Spectroscopy Vol. 33(5), September/October 2012 INTRODUCTION IntroductionoftheNational GeochemicalMappingProgramme (NGCM)intheGeologicalSurveyof.
From: www.at-spectrosc.com

## F. No. 288/ResulGT (Sanskrit)/Male/CC-Ml/DSSSB/2021-22/ 3Y ...

module on !aaaaa!:gsss±2gn!in£. njcL=ip . 4. Based on the performance in the examination (onHne mode), only 763 candidates have obtained marks above or equal to minimum qualifying marks in each section (Section A & Section 8 separately) in his respective category and have been provisionally shortlisted to.
From: dsssb.delhi.gov.in

## |Sunrise St andU p Base Corn Starter

Acidity: pH 6.7 ± 0.1 Weight per gallon: 10.6 lbs @ 60ºF Package Size: Minibulk, Bulk Color: Clear, Green GENERAL INFORMATION ® Base Corn Starter is a liquid plant-nutrient mixture of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. StandUp® Base Corn Starter has a low salt index that allows in-furrow placement for faster root interception. High ....
From: www.pctnutrients.com

## I J4aL - I '.-:. i-.-i ------.-.- i------` i-''.i--ii.

module on ±±nyw.dsssbonline.nic±n . 4. Based on the performance in the examination (online mode), only 01 candidate has obtained marks above or equal to minimum qualftying marks in his respective category and has been provisionally shortlisted to uploading Of e-dossier subject to attaining minimum qual.rfying.
From: dsssb.delhi.gov.in

## METHODOLOGYARTICLE OpenAccess ...

andU-Net++[14]servedascontrol.Intheexperiments, U-Net was employed as a benchmark of segmentation due to its wide application in such tasks. The selection ... is reported as mean value ± standard deviation. The meanings of T.C. and U.S. are the same as shown in “Validation loss curve during training” section. Besides,.
From: bmcbioinformatics.biomedcentral.com

## |Sunrise St andU p Premium K Corn Starter w/MIC

Acidity: pH 8.0 ± 0.1 Weight per gallon: 11.33 lbs @ 60ºF Package Size: Minibulk, Bulk Color: Clear, Pale Green GENERAL INFORMATION PCT | Sunrise StandUp Premium K Corn Starter w/MIC is a liquid plant-nutrient mixture of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium with micronutrients and beneficial microorganisms..
From: www.pctnutrients.com

## Effect of processing on oxalate and tannin levels in ...

With respect to leguminous, the mean values (mg/100 g) were: green beans (tan: 4.71±0.08 and ox: 4.92±0.03) and andu beans (tan: 6.05±0, 02 and ox: 0.48±0.04). There was a mean reduction of 17.5% (ox) and 10% (tan) after heat treatment and 60.75% (ox) and 89.2% (tan) ....
From: www.cabi.org

## Reduction of activation temperature at 150°C for IGZO ...

arelocatedat530.3±0.5,531.2±0.3,and532.1±0.4eV, respectively. Figure5(a)–(c) show the deconvoluted O 1s spectra of the inactivated, only thermally activated, andU-T-activatedfilms,respectively.Theresultsofthe comparison of the area percentages for the MO, oxy-gen vacancy, and hydroxyl groups are summarized in.
From: www.tandfonline.com

## Junk Town by Brandon Le : ImaginaryPathways

28.6k members in the ImaginaryPathways community. Paintings and drawings featuring pathways. A path is a place where many have traveled. Trails â€¦33.0k members in the ImaginaryPathways community. Paintings and drawings featuring pathways. A path is a place where many have traveled. Trails ….
From: www.reddit.com

## National Democratic Institute

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