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image of Å - Wikipedia

Å - Wikipedia

The letter Å represents various sounds in several languages. It is a separate letter in Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, North Frisian, Low Saxon, Walloon, Chamorro, Lule Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ume Sami, and Greenlandic alphabets. Additionally, it is part of the alphabets used for some Alemannic and Austro-Bavarian dialects of German. Though Å is ….
From: en.wikipedia.org

Letter A with overring

The letter A (a in lower case) represents various (although often very similar) sounds in several languages. It is a separate letter in Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish, North Frisian, Low Saxon, Walloon, Chamorro, Lule Sami, Pite Sami, Skolt Sami, Southern Sami, Ume Sami, and Greenlandic alphabets. Additionally, it is part of the alphabets used for some Alemannic and Austro-Bavarian dialects of German.[citation needed]

Though A is derived from A by adding an overring, it is considered a separate letter. It developed as a form of semi-ligature of an A with a smaller o above it to denote a long and darker A, a process similar to how the umlaut mark developed from a small e written above certain letters.

Scandinavian languages[edit] Origin[edit]

The A-sound originally had the same origin as the long /aː/ sound in German Aal and Haar (Scandinavian al, har, English eel, hair).

Historically, the a derives from the Old Norse long /aː/ vowel (spelled with the letter a), but over time, it developed to an [ɔː] sound in most Scandinavian language varieties (in Swedish and Norwegian, it has eventually reached the pronunciation [oː]). Medieval writing often used doubled letters for long vowels, and the vowel continued to be written Aa.

In Old Swedish the use of the ligature AE and of O (originally also a variant of the ligature OE) that represented the sounds [ae] and [o] respectively were gradually replaced by new letters. Instead of using ligatures, a minuscule (that is, lower-case) E was placed above the letters A and O to create new graphemes. They later evolved into the modern letters A and O, where the E was simplified into the two dots now referred to as umlaut. A similar process was used to construct a new grapheme where an "aa" had previously been used. A minuscule O was placed on top of an A to create a new letter. It was first used in print in the Gustav Vasa Bible that was published in 1541 and replaced Aa in the 16th century.[1]

In an attempt to modernize the orthography, linguists tried to introduce the A to Danish and Norwegian writing in the 19th century. Most people felt no need for the new letter, although the letter group Aa had already been pronounced like A for centuries in Denmark and Norway. Aa was usually treated as a single letter, spoken like the present A when spelling out names or words. Orthography reforms making A official were carried out in Norway in 1917 and in Denmark in 1948. According to Jorgen Norby Jensen, senior consultant at Dansk Sprognaevn, the cause for the change in Denmark was a combination of anti-German and pro-Nordic sentiment.[2] Danish had been the only language apart from German and Luxembourgish to use capitalized nouns in the last decades, but abolished them at the same occasion.

In a few names of Danish cities or towns, the old spelling has been retained as an option due to local resistance, e.g. Aalborg and Aabenraa; however, Alborg and Abenra are the spellings recommended by the Danish Language Board.[3] Between 1948 and 2010, the city of Aarhus was officially spelled Arhus. However, the city has changed to the Aa spelling starting 2011, in a controversial decision citing internationalization and web compatibility advantages.

Icelandic and Faroese are the only North Germanic languages not to use the a. The Old Norse letter a is retained, but the sound it now expresses is a diphthong, pronounced [au] in Icelandic and [ɔa] in Faroese. The short variation of Faroese a is pronounced [ɔ], though.

Use in names[edit]

In some place names, the old Aa spelling dominates, more often in Denmark than in Norway (where it has been abolished in official use since 1917). Locals of Aalborg and Aabenraa resist the A, whereas Alesund is rarely seen with Aa spelling. Official rules allow both forms in the most common cases, but A is always correct. A as a word means "small river" in Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian and can be found in place names.

Before 1917, when spelling with the double A was common, some Norwegian place names contained three or four consecutive A letters: for instance Haaa (now Haa, a river) and Blaaaasen (Blaasen, 'the blue ("bla") ridge ("as")').

In family names, the bearer of the name uses Aa or A according to their choice, but since family names are inherited they are resistant to change and the traditional Aa style is often kept. For instance, the last name Aagaard is much more common than Agard. The surname Aa is always spelled with double A, never with the single a. However, given names - which are less commonly inherited - have largely changed to the use of the A. For instance, in Norway more than 12,000 male citizens spell their name Hakon, while only around 2,500 are named Haakon.

Company names are sometimes spelled with the double A by choice, usually in order to convey an impression of old-fashionedness or traditionality. The double A, representing a single sound, is usually kept in initials e.g. for people whose first, middle, and/or last name begins with the double A. Accordingly, a man named "Hans Aagard Hauge" would spell his initials "H. Aa. H." (not "H. A. H." nor "H. A. H."), while a woman named Aase Vestergaard would spell her initials "Aa. V." (not "A. V." nor "A. V.").

Alphabetization[edit] Danish and Norwegian[edit]

Correct alphabetization in Danish and Norwegian places A as the last letter in the alphabet, the sequence being AE, O, A. This is also true for the alternative spelling "Aa". Unless manually corrected, sorting algorithms of programs localised for Danish or Norwegian will place e.g., Aaron after Zorro.

In Danish the correct sorting of aa depends on pronunciation: If the sound is pronounced as one sound it is sorted as A regardless of the sound is 'a' or 'a'; thus, for example, the German city Aachen is listed under A, as well as the Danish city Aabenraa. (This is §3 in the Danish Retskrivningsreglerne.)

Swedish[edit]

In the Swedish and Finnish alphabets, A is sorted after Z, as the third letter from the end, the sequence being A, A, O. This is easiest to remember across the Nordic languages, that Danish and Norwegian follow Z first with E-mutated letters AE and O and then the symbol with a one-stroke diacritic A. Swedish and Finnish follow Z with a one-stroke diacritic A and then a two-stroke (or two-dot) diacritic A, O. A combined Nordic sorting mnemonic is AE, O, A, A, O.

International transcription[edit]

Alternative spellings of the Scandinavian A have become a concern because of globalization, and particularly because of the popularization of the World Wide Web. This is to a large extent due to the fact that prior to the creation of IDNA system around 2005, internet domains containing Scandinavian letters were not recognized by the DNS system, and anyway do not feature on keyboards adapted for other languages. While it is recommended to keep the A intact wherever possible, the next best thing is to use the older, double A spelling (e.g. "www.raade.com" instead of "www.rade.com"). This is because, as previously discussed, the A/Aa indicates a separate sound. If the A is represented as a common A without the overring (e.g. "www.rade.com") there is no indication that the A is supposed to represent another sound entirely. Even so, representing the A as just an A is particularly common in Sweden, as compared to Norway and Denmark, because the spelling Aa has no traditional use there.

Finnish[edit]

Because the Finnish alphabet is derived from the Swedish alphabet, A is carried over, but it has no native Finnish use and is treated as in Swedish. Its usage is limited to loanwords and names of Swedish, Danish or Norwegian origin. In Finland there are many Swedish-speaking as well as many Finnish-speaking people with Swedish surnames, and many Swedish surnames include A. In addition, there are many geographical places in the Finnish coastal areas that have a in their Swedish names, such as Krako and Langnas. The Finnish name for A is ruotsalainen O ("Swedish O"), and is pronounced identically to O, which has the value [o̞].

It is not advised to substitute aa for a in Finnish, as aa is already a common letter combination with the value [aː].

Emilian-Romagnol[edit]

In Emilian-Romagnol, a is used to represent the open-mid back unrounded vowel [ʌ], e.g. Modenese dialect amm, danna [ˈʌmː], [ˈdʌnːa] "man, woman";

e.g. Bolognese dialect Bulaggna, dapp [buˈlʌɲːa] [ˈdʌpː] "Bologna, later".

Walloon[edit]

A was introduced to some eastern local variants of Walloon at the beginning of the 16th century and initially noted the same sound as in Danish. Its use quickly spread to all eastern dialects, but the cultural influence Liege and covered three sounds, a long open o, a long close o or a long a, depending on the local varieties. The use of a single a letter to cover such pronunciations has been embraced by the new pan-Walloon orthography, with one orthography for words regardless of the local phonetic variations. The Walloon use of A became the most popular use outside a Scandinavian language, even being used in the International Phonetic Alphabet drafted by Otto Jespersen.

In standardized writings outside the Liege area, words containing a are written with uh, a or o. For example, the word majhon (house), in the standardized orthography is spelled mojo, mahon, mohone, maujon in dialectal writings.

Istro-Romanian[edit]

The Istro-Romanian alphabet is based on the standard Romanian alphabet with three additional letters used to mark sounds specific only to this language: a, l and n.

Chamorro[edit]

A and a are also used in the practical orthography of Chamorro, a language indigenous to the people of Northern Mariana Islands and Guam. The Chamorro name for Guam is Guahan, and its capital is called Hagatna.

Greenlandic[edit]

In Greenlandic, a is not used in native words, but is used in several loanwords from Danish, such as bandoptageri (Danish bandoptager) 'tape recorder'. Like in Danish, a is sorted last in the alphabet.

Symbol for angstrom[edit]

The letter "A" (U+00C5) is also used throughout the world as the international symbol for the non-SI unit angstrom, a physical unit of length named after the Swedish physicist Anders Jonas Angstrom. It is always upper case in this context (symbols for units named after persons are generally upper-case). The angstrom is a unit of length equal to 10−10 m (one ten-billionth of a meter) or 0.1 nm.

Unicode also has encoded U+212B Å ANGSTROM SIGN. However, that is canonically equivalent to the ordinary letter A. The duplicate encoding at U+212B is due to round-trip mapping compatibility with an East-Asian character encoding, but is otherwise not to be used.[4]

On computers[edit] Similarly styled trademarks[edit]

The logo of the Major League Baseball team known as the Los Angeles Angels is a capital "A" with a halo. Due to the resemblance, some Angels fans stylize the name as "Angels".

The logo of the Stargate series similarly features a stylized A with a circle above it, making it resemble an A as in Stargate; in Norwegian, gate means "riddle".

Cirque du Soleil's Kooza production uses this character in its logo, although it is pronounced by the main singer as a regular "a".

British producer and singer Lapsley uses it in her stage name.

See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]


image of vb.net - HTML encoding issues -

vb.net - HTML encoding issues - "Â" character showing up ...

I had the problem that showing  instead of » , amd When Using this solution the problem solved but there is a php warning: Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at D:\Program Files\wamp\wamp\www\projects\kerala\kerala_public_html\edit\business_details.php:1) in …I've got a legacy app just starting to misbehave, for whatever reason I'm not sure. It generates a bunch of HTML that gets turned into PDF reports by ActivePDF. The process works like this: Pull....
From: stackoverflow.com

I've got a legacy app just starting to misbehave, for whatever reason I'm not sure. It generates a bunch of HTML that gets turned into PDF reports by ActivePDF.

The process works like this:

Somewhere in that mess, the non-breaking spaces from the HTML template (the  s) are encoding as ISO-8859-1 so that they show up incorrectly as an "A" character when viewing the document in a browser (FireFox). ActivePDF pukes on these non-UTF8 characters.

My question: since I don't know where the problem stems from and don't have time to investigate it, is there an easy way to re-encode or find-and-replace the bad characters? I've tried sending it through this little function I threw together, but it turns it all into gobbledegook doesn't change anything.

Any ideas?

I'm getting by with this for now, though it hardly seems like a good solution:


image of UTF-8 Character Debug Tool

UTF-8 Character Debug Tool

Table used for debugging common UTF-8 character encoding problems.
Keyword: functional test, linguistic test, QA, bug, pseudolocalization, internationalization, localization, globalization, translation, i18n, l10n, g11n, I18nQA, I18nGuy, XenCraft, Tex Texin, multinational, multilingual, Unicode, character, encoding, charset
From: www.i18nqa.com

Encoding Problem: Double Mis-Conversion Symptom

With this particular double conversion, most characters display correctly. Only characters with a second UTF-8 byte of 0x81, 0x8D, 0x8F, 0x90, 0x9D fail. In Windows-1252, the following characters with the Unicode code points: U+00C1, U+00CD, U+00CF, U+00D0, and U+00DD will show the problem. If you look at the I18nQA Encoding Debug Table you can see that these characters in UTF-8 have second bytes ending in one of the Unassigned Windows code points.

A I I D Y

Explanation

Software that is incorrectly converting the bytes of UTF-8 characters from Windows-1252 to UTF-8 and back will have the problem that most characters seem to work, but certain values like U+00DD Y do not.

The Windows-1252 code points 0x81, 0x8D, 0x8F, 0x90, 0x9D are unassigned. They do not yet represent any characters. An attempt to convert any of these code points from Windows-1252 to UTF-8, will return an error or unknown value (usually a question mark "?") or other signal that a problem has occurred.

An incorrect conversion of UTF-8 bytes from Windows-1252 to UTF-8 is being performed as well as a compensating conversion from UTF-8 to Windows-1252. This "works" or is harmless for most characters, since the retrieved byte sequences are identical to those that are stored. However, it fails for the characters where the unassigned code points are involved. The first conversion generates an error and then the reverse conversion cannot return the original bytes.

An example of this occurs If a database driver is not configured correctly. A program is using UTF-8 for text and stores its text in a UTF-8 database. Beause of the incorrect configuration, the driver treats the program's UTF-8 text as Windows-1252 chracter encoding. Each of the bytes of the UTF-8 text is converted from Windows-1252 to UTF-8 as the data is stored in the database and then converted back from UTF-8 to Windows-1252 when the data is retrieved. The application and database will seem to be working fine except on the occasions when one of the unassigned code points is encountered. See Table 2, Demonstration of Problem with Unassigned Code Points.

References


image of Tessisamess

Tessisamess

Tessisamess. Hey there, I'm Tess! Welcome to my blog; I make lots of different layouts, codes, tutorials, and other resources for Insanejournal and Dreamwidth RPers! There's a lot to choose from and brand new content goes up every week! Take a look around, and don't hesitate to ask for help if you need it!Hey there, I'm Tess! I make lots of different layouts, codes, tutorials, and other resources for Insanejournal and Dreamwidth RPers. There's a lot to choose from and brand new content goes up every week!.
From: tessisamess.insanejournal.com

Welcome to my blog; I make lots of different layouts, codes, tutorials, and other resources for Insanejournal and Dreamwidth RPers! There's a lot to choose from and brand new content goes up every week!

Take a look around, and don't hesitate to ask for help if you need it!

Can't get enough resources? Why not subscribe to my Patreon for exclusive monthly content, or support the creation of more content by leaving a tip on Ko-Fi! ♡

Need an invite?

If you're unable to comment on my journal to ask for help now that anon has been turned off due to serious spam issues, don't worry! Just shoot me an email

and I'll send you an invite code for Insanejournal. I've got plenty to spare!


image of a - Wiktionary

a - Wiktionary

(Latin script): A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z (Variations of letter A): Á á À à Â â Ǎ ǎ Ă ă Ã ã Ả ả Ȧ ȧ Ạ ạ Ä ä Å å Ḁ ḁ Ā ā Ą ą ᶏ Ⱥ ⱥ Ȁ ȁ Ấ ấ Ầ ầ Ẫ ẫ Ẩ ẩ Ậ ậ Ắ ắ Ằ ằ Ẵ ẵ Ẳ ẳ Ặ ặ Ǻ ǻ Ǡ ǡ ....
From: en.wiktionary.org

See also: A and Appendix:Variations of "a"

Translingual[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

Approximate form of Greek upper case Α (a, “alpha”) that was the source for both common variants of a Modification of capital A.

Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

Symbol[edit] See also[edit] Further reading[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

Abbreviation of atto-, from Danish atten (“eighteen”).

Symbol[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Latin annus.

Symbol[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

Abbreviation of are, from French are.

Symbol[edit] Etymology 5[edit]

Abbreviation of acceleration

Symbol[edit]

Other representations of A:

Gallery[edit] English[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Middle English and Old English lower case letter a and split of Middle English and Old English lower case letter ae.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lowercase, uppercase A, plural as or a's)

Usage notes[edit] Derived terms[edit] See also[edit] Numeral[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit]

a (plural aes)[1]

Translations[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English a, from Old English an (“one; a; lone; sole”). The "n" was gradually lost before consonants in almost all dialects by the 15th century.

Pronunciation[edit] Article[edit]

a (indefinite)

Usage notes[edit]

Main appendix: English articles#Indefinite articles

Translations[edit] See also[edit] Derived terms[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

From Middle English a, ha contraction of have, or haven.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Usage notes[edit] Derived terms[edit] Etymology 5[edit]

From Middle English a, a reduced form of he (“he”)/ha (“he”), heo (“she”)/ha (“she”) and ha (“it”) (as well as of hie, hie (“they”)).

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 6[edit]

From Middle English of, with apocope of the final f and vowel reduction.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] Etymology 7[edit]

From Northern Middle English aw, alteration of all.

Pronunciation[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Adverb[edit]

a (not comparable)

Adjective[edit]

a (not comparable)

Etymology 8[edit] Symbol[edit] Etymology 9[edit] Adverb[edit] Etymology 10[edit] Particle[edit] Quotations[edit]

Additional quotations for any terms on this page may be found at Citations:a.

References[edit] Further reading[edit] Abau[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

Noun[edit] Afar[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Determiner[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Albanian[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Albanian *(h)an, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂en (“there”). Cognate with Latin an (“yes, perhaps”). Interrogative particle, usually used proclitically in simple sentences.

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

See also[edit] References[edit] Ama[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit] Anguthimri[edit] Verb[edit] References[edit] Aragonese[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin illa.

Article[edit] Asturian[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Derived terms[edit] Noun[edit] Azerbaijani[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a lower case (upper case A)

See also[edit] Bambara[edit] Article[edit] Interjection[edit] Pronoun[edit] Synonyms[edit] Basque[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a (indeclinable)

See also[edit] Bavarian[edit] Article[edit] Adverb[edit] Belizean Creole[edit] Preposition[edit] References[edit] Cameroon Pidgin[edit] Pronoun[edit] Catalan[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Derived terms[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad.

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit]

When the preposition a is followed by a masculine definite article, el or els, it is contracted with it to the forms al and als respectively. If el would be elided to the form l’ because it is before a word beginning with a vowel, the elision to a l’ takes precedence over contracting to al.

The same occurs with the salat article es, to form as except where es would be elided to s’.

Derived terms[edit] Chayuco Mixtec[edit] Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Conjunction[edit] References[edit] Chibcha[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit] References[edit] Chuukese[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Adjective[edit] Related terms[edit] Cimbrian[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ein, from Old High German ein, from Proto-West Germanic *ain.

Article[edit]

a (oblique masculine an)

References[edit] Coatepec Nahuatl[edit] Noun[edit] Cornish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit] Preposition[edit] Inflection[edit] Corsican[edit] Etymology[edit]

From the earlier la.

Pronunciation[edit] Article[edit]

a f (masculine u, masculine plural i, feminine plural e)

Usage notes[edit] Pronoun[edit] Usage notes[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Czech[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *a.

Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] Further reading[edit] Dalmatian[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Danish[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit]

a n (singular definite a'et, plural indefinite a'er)

Inflection[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Dutch[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle Dutch a, from Old Dutch a, from Proto-Germanic *ahwo.

Alternative forms[edit] Noun[edit]

a f (plural a's, diminutive aatje n)

Related terms[edit] Further reading[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Middle Dutch jou, from Old Dutch *ju, a northern (Frisian?) variant of *iu, from Proto-Germanic *iwwiz, a West Germanic variant of *izwiz. Doublet of u.

Pronoun[edit] Synonyms[edit] Egyptian[edit] Romanization[edit] Emilian[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ego (“I”).

Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a (personal, nominative case)

Alternative forms[edit] Related terms[edit] Esperanto[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a (accusative singular a-on, plural a-oj, accusative plural a-ojn)

See also[edit] Estonian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit] Conjunction[edit] See also[edit] Further reading[edit] Fala[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Portuguese a, from Latin illa (“that”).

Article[edit]

a f (plural as, masculine o, masculine plural os)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese a, from Latin ad (“to”).

Preposition[edit] Faroese[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin a

Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

See also[edit] Finnish[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Noun[edit] Usage notes[edit]

Capitalized for the great octave or any octave below that, or in names of major keys; not capitalized for the small octave or any octave above that, or in names of minor keys.

Declension[edit] French[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit]

a m or f (plural as)

Derived terms[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

Quebec eye-dialect spelling of elle.

Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] See also[edit] Further reading[edit] Fula[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Usage notes[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronoun[edit] Usage notes[edit] See also[edit] Galician[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ad (“to, toward”).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a̝/

Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit]

The preposition a regularly forms contractions when it precedes the definite article o, a, os, and as. For example, a o ("to the") contracts to ao or o, and a a ("to the") contracts to a.

Derived terms[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese a, from Latin illa, feminine of ille (“that”).

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a̝/

Article[edit]

a f (masculine singular o, feminine plural as, masculine plural os)

Usage notes[edit]

The definite article o (in all its forms) regularly forms contractions when it follows the prepositions a (“to”), con (“with”), de (“of, from”), and en (“in”). For example, con a (“with the”) contracts to coa, and en a (“in the”) contracts to na.

Also, the definite article presents a second form that could be represented as <-lo/-la/-los/-las>, or either lack any specific representation. Its origin is in the assimilation of the last consonant of words ended in -s or -r, due to sandhi, with the /l/ present in the article in pre-Galician-Portuguese period. So Vou comer o caldo or Vou come-lo caldo are representations of /ˈβowˈkomelo̝ˈkaldo̝/ ("I'm going to have my soup"). This phenomenon, rare in Portuguese, is already documented in 13th century Medieval Galician texts, as the Cantigas de Santa Maria.[1]

Derived terms[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /ˈa/

Noun[edit]

a m (plural as)

Etymology 4[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronoun[edit] References[edit] German[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit]

a n (strong, genitive a or as, plural a or as)

Etymology 2[edit] Noun[edit] Gilbertese[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Oceanic *pat, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *əpat, from Proto-Austronesian *Səpat.

Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

Numeral[edit] Gothic[edit] Romanization[edit] Grass Koiari[edit] Pronoun[edit] References[edit] Gun[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Haitian Creole[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

Article[edit] Usage notes[edit]

This term only follows words that end with an oral (non-nasal) consonant and an oral vowel in that order, and can only modify singular nouns.

See also[edit] Hawaiian[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /aː/

Conjunction[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] Hungarian[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Article[edit]

a (definite)

Usage notes[edit]

Used before words starting with a consonant.

Related terms[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a (demonstrative)

Determiner[edit]

a (demonstrative)

Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Derived terms[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit] Icelandic[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

Noun[edit] See also[edit] Ido[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a (plural a-i)

See also[edit] Preposition[edit] Related terms[edit] Igbo[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A, lower case a)

Etymology 1[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Notes[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Determiner[edit] Related terms[edit] Indo-Portuguese[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Portuguese a.

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Indonesian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Ingrian[edit] Etymology[edit]

Borrowed from Russian а (a).

Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] References[edit] Interlingua[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Derived terms[edit] Inupiaq[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Interjection[edit] Irish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish a, from Proto-Celtic *esyo (the final vowel triggering lenition), feminine Proto-Celtic *esyas (the final -s triggering h-prothesis), plural Proto-Celtic *eysom (the final nasal triggering eclipsis), all from the genitive forms of Proto-Indo-European *ey. Cognate with Welsh ei.

Determiner[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Determiner[edit]

a (triggers h-prothesis)

Determiner[edit]

a (triggers eclipsis)

See also[edit] Determiner[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 2[edit]

A reduced form of older do (itself a reanalysis of do used in past tenses, and also present in early modern verbs like do-bheirim (“I give”), do-chim (“I see”)), or from the preverb a- in early modern verbs like a-tu (“I am”), a-deirim (“I say”) in relative clauses.

Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition except of d’ and of past autonomous forms)

References[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish a (“that, which the relative particle used after prepositions”), reanalyzed as an independent indirect relative particle from forms like ar a (“on which, on whom”), da (“to which, to whom”), or early modern le a (“with which, with whom”), aga (“at which, at whom”) when prepositional pronouns started to be repeated in such clauses (eg. don te aga mbion cloidheamh (…) aige, daoine aga mbionn gradh aco do Dhia). Compare the forms used in Munster instead: go (from aga (“at which”)) and na (from i n-a (“in which”), go n-a (“with which”), ria n-a (“before which”) and later lena (“with which”), trena (“through which”)).

Particle[edit]

a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

Related terms[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a (triggers eclipsis, takes the dependent form of an irregular verb; not used in the past tense except with some irregular verbs)

Related terms[edit] References[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 5[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers h-prothesis)

Etymology 6[edit]

Originally a reduced form of do.

Preposition[edit]

a (plus dative, triggers lenition)

Mutation[edit] Further reading[edit] Istriot[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Particle[edit] Italian[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin a (the name of the letter A).

Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit]

a f (invariable)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad. In a few phrases, a stems from Latin a, ab.

Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] Descendants[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Verb[edit] References[edit] Japanese[edit] Romanization[edit] Jersey Dutch[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology[edit] Letter[edit] K'iche'[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Adjective[edit] Adverb[edit] Pronoun[edit] References[edit] Kabuverdianu[edit] Letter[edit]

a (uppercase A)

Kabyle[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Determiner[edit] Kalasha[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Sanskrit अहम् (aham).

Pronoun[edit]

a (Arabic آ‎)

See also[edit] Koitabu[edit] Pronoun[edit] References[edit] Krisa[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

Noun[edit] References[edit] Ladin[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin a.

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Derived terms[edit] Lashi[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Adverb[edit] References[edit] Latgalian[edit] Etymology[edit]

Shortened from an older Baltic form *a, which cognates with Lithuanian o (the same meaning).

Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] Particle[edit] Latin[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Ancient Greek Α (A, “alpha”), likely through Etruscan.

Pronunciation[edit]

(letter name):

Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Etruscan [Term?].

Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit]

a f (indeclinable)

Coordinate terms[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

Alternative form of ab by apocope (not used before a vowel or h).

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit]

a (+ ablative)

Usage notes[edit]

Used in conjunction with passive verbs to mark the agent.

Derived terms[edit] Descendants[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

Expressive.

Pronunciation[edit] Interjection[edit] Latvian[edit] Etymology[edit]

Proposed in 1908 as part of the new Latvian spelling by the scientific commission headed by K. Milenbahs, which was accepted and began to be taught in schools in 1909. Prior to that, Latvian had been written in German Fraktur, and sporadically in Cyrillic.

Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a m (invariable)

See also[edit] Further reading[edit] Ligurian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Article[edit]

a f sg (plural e)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Livonian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

Louisiana Creole French[edit] Etymology[edit]

From French avoir (“to have”)

Verb[edit] Lower Sorbian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] Further reading[edit] Lushootseed[edit] Letter[edit] Malay[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

(letter name): IPA(key): /a/

Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Maltese[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Mandarin[edit] Romanization[edit]

a (Zhuyin ˙ㄚ)

Usage notes[edit] Mandinka[edit] Pronoun[edit] See also[edit] Maori[edit] Particle[edit] Usage notes[edit] Mezquital Otomi[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Interjection[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Otomi *ʔɔ, from Proto-Otomian *ʔɔ.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit] Derived terms[edit] References[edit] Middle Dutch[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Old Dutch a, from Proto-Germanic *ahwo.

Noun[edit] Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Descendants[edit] Further reading[edit] Middle English[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Pronoun[edit] Middle French[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Old French a, from Latin ad.

Alternative forms[edit] Preposition[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Old French [Term?], from Latin habet.

Verb[edit] Middle Welsh[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 3[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 4[edit]

Reduction of o (“from”).

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] Etymology 5[edit]

From Old Welsh ha.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit]

a (triggers aspiration)

Etymology 6[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit]

a (triggers aspiration)

Etymology 7[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *ageti, third-person singular present indicative of *ago-, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eǵ-.

Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Mutation[edit] Min Nan[edit] Mocheno[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Middle High German ein, from Old High German ein, from Proto-West Germanic *ain, from Proto-Germanic *ainaz (“one, a”).

Article[edit]

a (oblique masculine an)

References[edit] Mopan Maya[edit] Article[edit] References[edit] Mountain Koiari[edit] Pronoun[edit] References[edit] Murui Huitoto[edit] Adverb[edit] References[edit] Nauruan[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Navajo[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Neapolitan[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin de ab.

Preposition[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Nias[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *kaən, from Proto-Austronesian *kaən.

Verb[edit]

a (imperfective manga)

References[edit] Norman[edit] Verb[edit] Norwegian Bokmal[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin a, from Ancient Greek Α (A, “alpha”), likely through the Etruscan language, from Phoenician 𐤀‎ (ʾ), from Proto-Canaanite Protoalef.svg, from Proto-Sinaitic Proto-semiticA-01.svg, from Egyptian 𓃾, representing the head of an ox.

Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (uppercase A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a m (definite singular a-en, indefinite plural a-er, definite plural a-ene)

Derived terms[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

Abbreviation of atto- (“atto-”).

Symbol[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

Abbreviation of ar (“are”).

Symbol[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

From French a (“to, on, in”).

Preposition[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Etymology 5[edit]

From Latin a (“from, away from, out of”), alternative form of ab (“from, away from, out of, down from”).

Preposition[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Etymology 6[edit]

From Italian a (“in, at, to”).

Preposition[edit] Etymology 7[edit]

From Old Norse hana (“her”), accusative form of hon (“she”), from Proto-Norse [script needed] (*han-), from a prefixed form of Proto-Germanic *ainaz (“one; some”), from Proto-Indo-European *oynos (“one; single”).

Pronoun[edit] Etymology 8[edit]

From Danish ah (“oh”), likely from German ach (“oh”), from Middle High German ach, from Old High German ah. Also see ah and akk.

Interjection[edit] Etymology 9[edit]

Mostly likely from Norwegian ad (“against, on”), from Danish ad (“by, at”), from Old Danish at, from Old Norse at (“at, to”), from Proto-Germanic *at (“at, toward, to”), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ed (“to, at”).

Interjection[edit] Alternative forms[edit] References[edit] Anagrams[edit] Norwegian Nynorsk[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lowercase, uppercase A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a m (definite singular a-en, indefinite plural a-ar, definite plural a-ane)

Etymology 2[edit] Interjection[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Norse af, from Proto-Germanic *ab, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂epo.

Preposition[edit] References[edit] Nupe[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

Clipping of la

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit] Usage notes[edit]

a, which is derived from the verb la (“to take”), functions like a verb so that the word order in the present perfect tense is that of a serial verb construction.

Etymology 4[edit]

Clipping of ga

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit] Occitan[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Derived terms[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Noun[edit]

a f (plural as)

Etymology 3[edit] Verb[edit] Old Danish[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Norse a, from Proto-Germanic *ahwo.

Noun[edit]

a (genitive ar, plural ar)

Descendants[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Norse a, from Proto-Germanic *ana.

Preposition[edit] Descendants[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Verb[edit] Old Dutch[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Proto-Germanic *ahwo.

Noun[edit] Inflection[edit]

This noun needs an inflection-table template.

Alternative forms[edit] Descendants[edit] Further reading[edit] Old English[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Proto-West Germanic *aiw, from Proto-Germanic *aiwaz (“eternity, age”).

Pronunciation[edit] Adverb[edit] Descendants[edit] Old French[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad.

Alternative forms[edit] Preposition[edit] Derived terms[edit] Descendants[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Verb[edit] Old Irish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *sindom (“this”).

Alternative forms[edit] Article[edit]

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Pronoun[edit]

a (triggers eclipsis, takes a leniting relative clause using a deuterotonic or absolute verb form)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Descendants[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Conjunction[edit]

a (triggers eclipsis, takes a nasalizing relative clause)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *esyo (m and n), *esyas (f), and *esom (pl), from Proto-Indo-European *esyo, genitive singular of *is and *id; compare Welsh ei (“his, her, its”), eu (“their”); Old High German iro (“their”); and Sanskrit अस्य (asya, “his, its”), अस्यास् (asyás, “her”), and एषाम् (eṣám, “their”).

Alternative forms[edit] Determiner[edit]

a (predicative ai or ae) (triggers lenition in the masculine and neuter singular, an unwritten prothetic /h/ before a vowel in the feminine singular, and eclipsis in the plural)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Descendants[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *o (compare Welsh a, from Proto-Indo-European *o (compare Ancient Greek ὦ (o), Latin o).

Alternative forms[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Descendants[edit] Etymology 5[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers an unwritten prothetic /h/ before a vowel)

Descendants[edit] Etymology 6[edit]

From Proto-Celtic *exs.

Preposition[edit]

a (combined with plural article asnaib, combined with 1st singular possessive determiner asmo, combined with 3rd person possessive determiner assa)

For quotations using this term, see Citations:a/Old Irish.

Inflection[edit] Related terms[edit] Descendants[edit] References[edit] Old Portuguese[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin ad (“to”).

Preposition[edit] Descendants[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Article[edit] Ometepec Nahuatl[edit] Noun[edit] Palauan[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Pre-Palauan *a, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *a.

Article[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Pre-Palauan *a, from Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *a, from Proto-Austronesian *a.

Conjunction[edit] Polish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lowercase, uppercase A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a n (indeclinable)

Etymology 2[edit] Noun[edit]

a m inan

Etymology 3[edit]

Probably from Proto-Slavic *a (“and, but”).

Conjunction[edit] Derived terms[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Interjection[edit] Further reading[edit] Portuguese[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin a.

Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a m (plural as)

Related terms[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Portuguese a, from Latin illa (with the disappearance of an initial l; compare Spanish la).

Article[edit] Quotations[edit]

Additional quotations can be found at Citations:o.

See also[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a f (third-person singular)

Usage notes[edit] Quotations[edit]

Quotations can be found at Citations:a.

See also[edit]

See Template:Portuguese personal pronouns for more.

Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Portuguese a, from Latin ad (“to”) and ab (“from, away, by”).

Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit]

When followed by a definite article, a is combined with the article to give the following combined forms:

In the sense of to (introducing the indirect object) usage with a personal pronoun can be replaced with an indirect pronoun (me, nos, te, vos, lhe, lhes):

In the sense of at (during the specified period) it can be used with:

Dia (“day”), manha (“morning”), madrugada (“early morning”) use de (“of”) instead, which can optionally be used for tarde, noitinha and noite as well. Names of months, days of the month and of the week use em (“in”).

Quotations[edit]

Quotations can be found at Citations:a.

Descendants[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Interjection[edit] Quotations[edit]

Quotations can be found at Citations:a.

Etymology 5[edit]

From homophone ha

Verb[edit] Quotations[edit]

Quotations can be found at Citations:a.

Etymology 6[edit]

From homophone a

Contraction[edit] Quotations[edit]

Quotations can be found at Citations:a.

Rapa Nui[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *a. Cognates include Maori a and Tongan ʻa.

Article[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Nuclear Polynesian *a. Cognates include Hawaiian a and Maori a.

Preposition[edit] References[edit] Romani[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Interjection[edit] References[edit] Romanian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Article[edit]

a (feminine singular possessive article)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad, from Proto-Indo-European *ad (“near; at”).

Preposition[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From proto-Romanian, from a late Vulgar Latin *ae(t), from Latin habet[1].

Verb[edit]

(el/ea) a (modal auxiliary, third-person singular form of avea, used with past participles to form perfect compus tenses)

Usage notes[edit]

a is used instead of are to form the third-person singular perfect compus.

Related terms[edit] References[edit] Sassarese[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad, from Proto-Italic *ad, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ed.

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit] References[edit] Satawalese[edit] Pronunciation[edit]

IPA(key): /a/

Pronoun[edit]

a (third-person singular)

References[edit]

Kevin M. Roddy (2007), "A Sketch Grammar Of Satawalese, The Language Of Satawal Island, Yap State, Micronesia"

Scots[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Middle English a, from Old English an (“one; a; lone; sole”).

Pronunciation[edit] Article[edit] Usage notes[edit] Synonyms[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Determiner[edit] Adverb[edit]

a (not comparable)

Noun[edit]

a (uncountable)

References[edit] Scottish Gaelic[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Old Irish a, from Proto-Celtic *o. Cognates include Irish a and Welsh a.

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Old Irish a. Cognates include Irish a.

Pronunciation[edit] Determiner[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Irish a. Cognates include Irish a.

Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 4[edit]

From Old Irish a. Cognates include Irish a.

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers H-prothesis)

Etymology 5[edit]

From Old Irish a. Cognates include Irish a.

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 6[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit] Preposition[edit]

a (+ dative, triggers lenition)

Etymology 7[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit] Particle[edit]

a (triggers lenition)

Etymology 8[edit]

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 9[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Interjection[edit] Alternative forms[edit] References[edit] Serbo-Croatian[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

See Translingual section.

Alternative forms[edit] Letter[edit]

a (Cyrillic spelling а)

Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *a (“and, but”).

Conjunction[edit]

a (Cyrillic spelling а)

Etymology 3[edit]

Attested since the 15th century. Probably of onomatopoeic origin. Compare Slovene a, Russian а (a), Lithuanian o, Latin o and Ancient Greek ὦ (o). These could all derive from Proto-Indo-European interjection o (“oh, ah”), but each form in individual languages could easily be an independent, expressive formation.

Interjection[edit]

a (Cyrillic spelling а)

References[edit] Skolt Sami[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

See also[edit] Slovak[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Latin a, form of A, from Etruscan 𐌀 (a), from Ancient Greek Α (A, “alpha”), from Phoenician 𐤀‎ (ʾ, “aleph”), from Egyptian 𓃾.

Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Slavic *a (“and, but”).

Conjunction[edit] Derived terms[edit] Further reading[edit] Slovene[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Interjection[edit] Synonyms[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit] Particle[edit] Spanish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit]

a f (plural aes)

See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Latin ad (“to”)

Alternative forms[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] Derived terms[edit] See also[edit] Sranan Tongo[edit] Pronoun[edit] Article[edit]

a (singular)

Usage notes[edit]

Sranan Tongo makes no difference between singular and plural forms, except for pronouns and determiners and the definite article. Common nouns referring to a collection of similar items are usually treated as singular where in English they would be grammatically plural, and so are referred to with singular pronouns and determiners and the singular definite article.

Preposition[edit] Particle[edit] Usage notes[edit]

This particle is only used when the temporal aspect is unmarked, whether for timeless facts, or for statements where time is not considered relevant.

Sumerian[edit] Romanization[edit] Swahili[edit] Particle[edit] Usage notes[edit] Inflection[edit] See also[edit] Swedish[edit] Preposition[edit] Usage notes[edit] See also[edit] Letter[edit]

a (name a, uppercase form A)

See also[edit] Tagalog[edit] Interjection[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Tarantino[edit] Preposition[edit] Tok Pisin[edit] Etymology[edit]

Imitative or onomatopoeia.

Interjection[edit] Tokelauan[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *a. Cognates include Maori a and Tuvaluan a.

Article[edit] Derived terms[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit]

From Proto-Polynesian *qa. Cognates include Hawaiian a and Samoan a.

Preposition[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Turkish[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit] Noun[edit] See also[edit] Turkmen[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

See also[edit] Upper Sorbian[edit] Conjunction[edit] Vietnamese[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

Borrowed from French a

Letter[edit]

a (upper case A)

Noun[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronoun[edit] Votic[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Letter[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Interjection[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Conjunction[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Walloon[edit] Etymology[edit]

From Latin ad.

Preposition[edit] Welsh[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Alternative forms[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Derived terms[edit] Mutation[edit] See also[edit] Noun[edit]

a f (plural au)

Mutation[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Synonyms[edit] Etymology 3[edit]

From Old Welsh a(c), from Proto-Brythonic *(h)a, from Proto-Indo-European *ad-gʰe (compare Welsh ag and Cornish ha).

Pronunciation[edit] Conjunction[edit]

a (triggers aspirate mutation (but not always in colloquial language))

Synonyms[edit] Etymology 4[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit]

a (triggers soft mutation)

Usage notes[edit] West Makian[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Conjugation[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Verb[edit] Conjugation[edit] Usage notes[edit]

The verb a ("to eat") takes the same verbal prefixes that directional verbs do.

References[edit] Yola[edit] Etymology[edit]

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation[edit] Article[edit] References[edit] Yoruba[edit] Etymology 1[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

Noun[edit] See also[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Etymology 3[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Pronoun[edit] Pronoun[edit] See also[edit] Yucatec Maya[edit] Pronoun[edit] Zazaki[edit] Letter[edit] See also[edit] Pronoun[edit] Zhuang[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Etymology 1[edit]

Compare Chinese 鴉.

Noun[edit]

a (Sawndip forms 𮬨 or 鵶 or ⿰下鳥 or 蚜, old orthography a)

Synonyms[edit] Etymology 2[edit] Noun[edit]

a (Sawndip form 妸, old orthography a)

Etymology 3[edit] Particle[edit]

a (old orthography a)

Zou[edit] Pronunciation[edit] Noun[edit] References[edit] Zulu[edit] Letter[edit]

a (lower case, upper case A)

See also[edit]


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University Housing – Student Affairs

2 days ago · Thursday, Jan. 6, 2022 at 7 p.m. EST: Register or join. Informational webinar for current UGA undergraduate students who wish to live on campus for fall/spring/summer 2022-2023. Parents, families and supporters are welcome! Note: The housing process for fall 2022 first-year students is different than the room sign-up process for current students..
From: housing.uga.edu

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Updates and quarantine and isolation information. Read more…

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For residents and supporters who may have missed a communication from University Housing. Read more…

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Maintaining healthy environments, mold and mildew prevention, health and safety inspections and links to UGA resources for supporting mental and physical well-being.  Learn more…

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Congratulations on becoming a Georgia Bulldog! All first-year students are required to live on campus and should register for housing as soon as possible to put themselves in line to choose their on-campus space. Read more…

Housing 101

Hi y’all! My name is Spencer and I am so excited to welcome you to campus and introduce you to my video series, Housing 101. In this series we’ll cover everything you need to know about living on campus – how to make friends, living sustainably, getting involved and more. Thank you so much for watching and as always, Go Dawgs!

Watch current students as they document their experiences living, learning and loving life at UGA. Follow all their adventures on our YouTube channel or search UGA Housing on YouTube, where you’ll find room tours, how-to videos and more.

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From: math.iastate.edu


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Full Moon. 3rd Quarter. Disable moonphases. Red –Federal Holidays and Sundays. Gray –Typical Non-working Days. Black–Other Days. Only common local holidays are listed. The year 2022 is a common year, with 365 days in total. Calendar shown with Monday as first day of week.Germany 2022 – Calendar with holidays. Yearly calendar showing months for the year 2022. Calendars – online and print friendly – for any year and month.
From: www.timeanddate.com


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 - Wikipedia

Â, âはAにサーカムフレックスを付した文字である。. フランス語、ポルトガル語、ルーマニア語、ウェールズ語、ベトナム語、日本語等で使われる。. ルーマニア語では「 î din a 」といい、非円唇中舌狭母音 [ɨ] を表す。 また語中にのみ使用され、語頭や語末では使用されない。.
From: ja.wikipedia.org


 - Wikipedia

Â, â (A cu accent circumflex) este o literă care face parte din alfabetele limbilor franceză, frizonă occidentală, friulană, galeză, portugheză, română, turcă, valonă și vietnameză.. Limba română. Â (â mare/majuscul), â (â mic/minuscul) este a treia literă din alfabetul limbii române. În limba română, Â (î din a) notează o vocală închisă centrală nerotunjită ....
From: ro.wikipedia.org


image of  – Wikipedia tiếng Việt

 – Wikipedia tiếng Việt

Â, â (a-mũ) là một ký tự của tiếng Rumani và tiếng Việt.Ký tự này còn xuất hiện trong tiếng Pháp, tiếng Bồ Đào Nha, tiếng Tây Frisia, tiếng Friuli và tiếng Wallon như là một biến thể của ký tự "a"..
From: vi.wikipedia.org


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