البرغل

10 dari hampir 30 hasil pencarian terdekat untuk kata kunci البرغل oleh administrator realrecipeses.fun akan membuatmu bahagia.

image of علم الدلالة والبراغماتيك

علم الدلالة والبراغماتيك

Nov 09, 2018 · ح٠اظ على / إالزم القوانين. Here are some more examples of collocations: 1. You must make an effort and study for your exams (NOT do an effort) 2. Did you watch TV last night? (NOT look at TV) 3. …  O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O© UˆO§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒ Semantics and Pragmatics Introductory Lecture Course Description: This course gives an introduction to two linguistic fields ….
From: englishdaba.com

O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O© UˆO§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒ Semantics and Pragmatics Introductory Lecture Course Description: This course gives an introduction to two linguistic fields that deal with meaningaE Semantics, i.e., the study of the conventional literal meaning, And Pragmatics, i.e., the study of the interactional intended meaning.

UˆOµU O§U„U…U‚O±O±:
USO¹O·US U‡O°O§ O§U„U…U‚O±O± U…U‚O¯U…O© UUS O­U‚U„USU† U…U† O§U„O­U‚UˆU„ O§U„U„OoUˆUSO© O§U„OaUS OaOaO¹O§U…U„ U…O¹ “O§U„U…O¹U†U‰”.
O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O©OOE OUS O¯O±O§O³O© O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„O­O±UUS O§U„OaU‚U„USO¯US.
UˆO¹U„U… O§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒOOE OUS O¯O±O§O³O© O§U„OaUO§O¹U„USO© U„U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯ .
Requirements:
You are expected to come to the course with:
1. Enthusiasm
2. Readiness
3. Minds
This course is not about memorization of asset of concepts and definitions. Rather, what is required is a general openness of mind and the exercise of intelligence and creativity.


Overview:
1. Utterance vs Sentence
2. Non-verbal Communication
3. Semantic Relations
4. Prototypes
5. Speech Act Theory
6. Conversational Maxims
7. Politeness and Face
And other more!

U„U…O­O© O¹O§U…O©:
.1 O§U„UƒU„O§U… U…U‚O§O¨U„ O§U„O¬U…U„O©
.2 O§U„OaUˆO§OµU„ OoUSO± O§U„U„UO¸US
.3 O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©
.4 U†U…O§O°O¬
.5 U†O¸O±USO© UO¹U„ O§U„O®O·O§O¨
.6 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„U…O­O§O¯O«O§Oa
.7 O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ UˆO§U„U…UˆO§O¬U‡O©
UˆOoUSO± O°U„Uƒ O§U„UƒO«USO±
Resources:
1. Introducing English Semantics by Charles W. Kreidler (Chapter2)
2. How English Works: A Linguistic Introduction by Ann Curzan and Michael Adams (Chapter 7 – 8)
3. The Study of Language by George Yule (Chapter 11 – 12)
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 3
Lecture 1
Both Semantics and Pragmatics are concerned with peopleaE™s ability to use language meaningfully.
While semantics is mainly concerned with a speakeraE™s competence to use the language system, the chief focus of pragmatics is a personaE™s ability to derive meaning from specific kinds of speech situations.
O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O© UˆO¹U„U… O§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒ UƒU„O§U‡U…O§ USU‡OaU… O¨U‚O¯O±O© O§U„U†O§O³ O¹U„U‰ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… U„OoO© O°Uˆ U…O¹U†U‰.
UUS O­USU† O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O© U…O®OaOµ OO³O§O³O§U‹ UUS UƒUO§O¡O© O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« UUS O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… U†O¸O§U… O§U„U„OoO©OOE O§U„OaO±UƒUSO² O§U„O±O¦USO³US UUS O§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒ USUƒUˆU† UUS
U‚O¯O±O© O§U„O´O®Oµ O¹U„U‰ O§O³OaU†OaO§O¬ O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ U…U† OU†UˆO§O¹ U…O­O¯O¯O© U…U† U…UˆO§O¶O¹ O§U„O®O·O§O¨.
(i.e., to recognize what the speaker is referring to; to aE˜fill inaE™ information that the speaker takes for granted and doesnaE™t bother to say.)
)OUS OU† U†O¯O±Uƒ U…O§ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… USO´USO± O¥U„USU‡O› aE™U„U…U„O¡aE™ O§U„U…O¹U„UˆU…O§Oa O§U„OaUS USOO®O°U‡O§ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… OU…O±O§ O¨O¯USU‡USO§OOE UˆU„O§ USUƒU„U U†UO³U‡ O¹U†O§O¡ O§U„U‚UˆU„.(
IaE™m hungryaE
Said by a beggar who has not eaten all day.
Said by a child who hopes to put off going to bed
Said by a man who wants to have lunch with his co-worker.
“OU†O§ O¬O§O¦O¹”
U‚USU„ U…U† U‚O¨U„ U…OaO³UˆU„ U„U… USO¤UƒU„ O·UˆO§U„ USUˆU… .
U‚USU„ U…U† U‚O¨U„ O·UU„ USOU…U„ UUS OaOO¬USU„ O§U„O°U‡O§O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„UO±O§O´
U‚USU„ U…U† U‚O¨U„ O±O¬U„ USO±USO¯ OU† USOaOoO¯U‰ U…O¹ O²U…USU„U‡ UUS O§U„O¹U…U„ .
The 3 events obviously have something in common and yet, they indicate different intentions and are liable to be interpreted differently because the situations and the participants are different.
U…U† O§U„UˆO§O¶O­ OU† O§U„OO­O¯O§O« O§U„O«U„O§O« O¨U‡O§ O´USO¡ U…O´OaO±Uƒ UˆU„UƒU†U†U‡O§ OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ U†UˆO§USO§ U…O®OaU„UO© UˆOaUƒUˆU† O®O§O¶O¹O© U„OaUO³USO± U…O®OaU„U U„OU† O§U„OUˆO¶O§O¹
Uˆ O§U„U…O´O§O±UƒUSU† U…O®OaU„UUSU†.
Utterance vs. Sentence:
An utterance is an event that happens just once; a sentence is a construction of words in a particular meaningful sequence.
The meaning of a sentence is determined by the meanings of the individual words and the syntactic construction in which they occur.
The meaning of an utterance is the meaning of the sentence plus the meanings of the circumstances: the time and place, the people involved, (the physical-social context).
E.g., Our visit to the factory was wonderful. O§U„UƒU„O§U… U…U‚O§O¨U„ O§U„O¬U…U„O©:
O§U„UƒU„O§U… U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O¯O« O§U„O°US USO­O¯O« U…O±O© UˆO§O­O¯O© UU‚O·OOE O§U„O¬U…U„O© U‡US O¨U†O§O¡ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa UUS OaO³U„O³U„ O°Uˆ U…O¹U†U‰ U…O¹USU† .
U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„O¬U…U„O© U…O­O¯O¯ O¨O­O³O¨ U…O¹O§U†US O§U„U…UO±O¯O§Oa Uˆ O§U„O¨U†O§O¡ O§U„U†O­UˆUS O§U„OaUS USU‚O¹ UUSU‡O§ .
U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„UƒU„O§U… U…U‚OaOµO± O¹U„U‰ U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„O¬U…U„O© O¨O§U„O¥O¶O§UO© O¥U„U‰ U…O¹O§U†US O¸O±UˆU O§U„UˆU‚Oa UˆO§U„U…UƒO§U† UˆO§U„U…O¹U†USUSU†OOE )O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U…O§O¯US – O§U„O¥O¬OaU…O§O¹US(
U…O«U„O§U‹OOE O²USO§O±OaU†O§ O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…OµU†O¹ UƒO§U†Oa O±O§O¦O¹O© .
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 4
Implicature:
An additional meaning; a bridge constructed by the hearer to relate one utterance to some previous utterance (unconsciously).
(1) Barbara: How did you do on the examination?
Adam: I think IaE™ll just drop this course.
(2) Jim: Would you like to go shopping tomorrow night?
Laura: We have guests coming from out of town. U…O±OaO¨O· O¶U…U†US O§ :
U…O¹U†U‰ O¥O¶O§UUS; O¬O³O± U…O¨U†US U…U† O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ U„O±O¨O· OO­O¯ O§U„OU‚UˆO§U„ O¨O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OU‚UˆO§U„ O§U„O³O§O¨U‚O© )O¨O¯UˆU† U‚OµO¯( .
)1( O¨O§O±O¨O±O§: UƒUSU UO¹U„Oa UUS O§U„O§U…OaO­O§U†OY
O¢O¯U…: O§O¹OaU‚O¯ O§U†U†US O³OO­O°U U‡O°O§ O§U„U…U‚O±O±”
)2( O¬USU…: U‡U„ OaO±OoO¨ UUS O§U„O°U‡O§O¨ U„U„OaO³UˆU‚ U„USU„O© O§U„OoO¯OY
U„UˆO±O§: U„O¯USU†O§ O¶USUˆU U‚O§O¯U…USU† U…U† O®O§O±O¬ O§U„U…O¯USU†O© .
Prosody: A spoken utterance consists of more than just words. In speech, meanings are communicated not only by what is said but also by how it is said. For example,
A: Has the Winston Street bus come yet?
B: Sorry. I didnaE™t understand. What did you say?
C: IaE™m afraid Fred didnaE™t like the remark I made.
D: Oh? What did you say?
E: Some of my partners said they wouldnaE™t accept these terms.
F: And you? What did you say?
G: YouaE™re misquoting me. I didnaE™t say anything like that.
H: Oh? What did you say?
O¹U„U… O§U„O¹O±UˆO¶: O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…OaO­O¯U‘O« O¨U‡ USOaOU„U U…U† OUƒO«O± U…U† U…O¬O±O¯ UƒU„U…O§Oa. UUS O§U„O­O¯USO« O§U„U…O¹O§U†US U…UˆOµUˆU„O© U„USO³ UU‚O· U…O§O°O§ USU‚O§U„ UˆU„UƒU†
OUSO¶ O§U‹ UƒUSUUSO© O§U„U‚UˆU„. O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE
O: U‡U„ OOaOa O­O§UU„O© O´O§O±O¹ UˆU†O³OaUˆU† O¨O¹O¯ OY
O¨: O¢O³U. U„U… OUU‡U…. U…O§O°O§ U‚U„OaOY
O¬: OU†O§ O®O§O¦U U…U† OU† UO±USO¯ U„U… OaO¹O¬O¨U‡ O§U„U…U„O§O­O¸O© O§U„OaUS U‚O¯U…OaU‡O§.
O¯: U†O¹U…OY U…O§O°O§ U‚U„Oa OY
U‡: O¨O¹O¶ O´O±UƒO§O¦US U‚O§U„UˆO§ O¨OU†U‡U… U„U† USU‚O¨U„UˆO§ U‡O°U‡ O§U„O´O±UˆO·.
Uˆ: UˆOU†OaOY U…O§O°O§ U‚U„OaOY
O²: OU†Oa OaO®O·O¦ O§U„O§U‚OaO¨O§O³ U…U†US. OU†O§ U„U… OU‚U„ O´USO¦O§ UƒU‡O°O§.
O­: U†O¹U…OY U…O§O°O§ U‚U„Oa OY
Non-verbal communication:
There are some ways of using the voice including e.g., laughing, giggling, and crying that are vocal but not verbal. These are called paralanguage.
Similarly, there are visible signs, gestures, aE˜body languageaE™aE”which possibly create an effect on the interpretation of a spoken message. O§U„O§OaOµO§U„ OoUSO± O§U„U„UO¸US:
U‡U†O§Uƒ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O·O±U‚ U„O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„OµUˆOa O¨U…O§ UUS O°U„Uƒ U…O«U„O§ OOE O§U„O¶O­UƒOOE O§U„O¶O­Uƒ O¨OµUˆOa U…U†O®UO¶ UˆO§U„O¨UƒO§O¡ UˆUSUƒUˆU† OµUˆOaUS UˆU„UƒU† OoUSO±
U„UO¸US. UˆUSO³U…U‰ O´O¨U‡ O§U„U„OoO©.
UˆO¨O§U„U…O«U„OOE U‡U†O§Uƒ O¹U„O§U…O§Oa U…O±O¦USO©OOE O§U„O¥USU…O§O¡O§OaOOE ” U„OoO© O§U„O¬O³O¯ ” – O§U„OaUS O±O¨U…O§ OaO­O¯O« OaOO«USO± O§U‹ O¹U„U‰ OaUO³USO± O®O·O§O¨ U…U„UUˆO¸.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 5
Consider these visual signs:
Nodding the head in response to an utterance.
Pretending to yawn, with finger tips in front of mouth.
Holding up a thumb from a closed fist.
Pinching oneaE™s nose closed with thumb and forefinger.
Shoulders are moved upward and down again, possibly repeated (aE˜shrugging shouldersaE™).
The palm of one hand is brought up and slaps smartly against the forehead.
The hand, slightly cupped, is pulled across the forehead as if wiping something away.
O®O° O¨O¹USU† O§U„O¥O¹OaO¨O§O± U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¹U„O§U…O§Oa O§U„U…O±O¦USO© :
O§U„O¥USU…O§O¡ O¨O§U„O±OO³ U„U„O±O¯ O¹U„U‰ O§U„UƒU„O§U….
O§U„OaO¸O§U‡O± O¨O§U„OaO«O§O¡O¨OOE U…O¹ UˆO¶O¹ OO·O±O§U O§U„OOµO§O¨O¹ OU…O§U… O§U„UU….
O±O§UO¹ O§ O§U„O¥O¨U‡O§U… U…U† O§U„USO¯ UˆU‡US U…U‚O¨UˆO¶O©.
O¥OoU„O§U‚ O§U„OU†U O¨U‚O±OµU‡ O¨O§U„O¥O¨U‡O§U… UˆO§U„O³O¨O§O¨O©.
OaO­O±USUƒ O§U„UƒOaUUSU† U„U„OO¹U„U‰ UˆU„U„OO³UU„ U…O±O© OO®O±U‰ UˆO±O¨U…O§ OaUƒO±O± O°U„Uƒ )”U„O§ USO¨O§U„US”(.
UƒU O¥O­O¯U‰ O§U„OUSO¯US USO±UO¹ UˆUSOµUO¹ O¨O³O±O¹O© O¨O§OaO¬O§U‡ O§U„O¬O¨U‡O©.
O§U„USO¯OOE U…U‚O¹O±O© U‚U„USU„O§U‹OOE USOaU… O³O­O¨U‡O§ O¹O¨O± O§U„O¬O¨U‡O© UƒU…O§ U„Uˆ UƒO§U† USU…O³O­ O´USO¦O§U‹ O¹U†U‡O§.
.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 6
Lecture 1
Semantic Relations O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©
Semantic Relations Among words
In everyday talk, we frequently give the meanings of words, not in terms of their component features, but in terms of their relationships.
E.g., the meaning of shallowaE is the opposite of deepaE, the word concealaE is the same as hideaE, and tulipaE is a kind of floweraE.
Examples of the lexical relations types are: Synonymy, Antonymy, Hyponymy, Homophony, Homonymy, and Polysemy. O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© O¨USU† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa
UUS O§U„OO­O§O¯USO« O§U„USUˆU…USO©OOE OoO§U„O¨O§U‹ U…O§ U†O¹O·US U…O¹O§U†US O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa OOE U„USO³ U…U† O­USO« U…USO²O§Oa O¹U†OµO±U‡O§OOE UˆU„UƒU† U…U† O­USO« O¹U„O§U‚O§OaU‡O§.
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE U…O¹U†U‰ “O³O·O­US” O¹UƒO³ “O¨O§U„Oo”OOE UˆUƒU„U…O© “UƒOaU…” U‡Uˆ U†UO³ ” OO®UU‰ “OOE Uˆ”O§U„O®O²O§U…U‰” U‡Uˆ U†UˆO¹ U…U†
“O§U„O²U‡UˆO±”.
OU…O«U„O© O¹U„U‰ OU†UˆO§O¹ O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O§Oa O§U„U„UO¸USO©: O§U„U…O±O§O¯UO§OaOOE O§U„U…O¶O§O¯O§OaOOE O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© O¨USU† O§U„UƒU„U…O© UˆOµU†UU‡O§OOE O§U„OaU†O§OoU…OOE O§U„OaO¬O§U†O³OOE OaO¹O¯O¯ O§U„U…O¹O§U†US.
Synonyms are two or more forms with very closely related meanings, which are often, but not always, interchangeable in sentences. E.g., broad/wide, almost/nearly, cab/taxi, youth/adolescent, purchase/buy.
There is no total samenessaE. One word could be appropriate in a sentence, but its synonym would be odd: Cathy had only one answer correct on the test.
Synonyms differ in formality: My father purchased a large automobile vs. my dad bought a big car.
O§U„U…O±O§O¯UO§Oa U‡US O´UƒU„USU† OUˆ OUƒO«O± U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS U„U‡O§ U…O¹O§U†US O°Uˆ OµU„O© U…OaU‚O§O±O¨O© OOE UˆUƒO«USO± O§U‹ U…O§OOE UˆU„UƒU† U„USO³ O¯O§O¦U…O§OOE U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„OaO¨O¯USU„ UUS
O§U„O¬U…U„. UˆO¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE UˆO§O³O¹O© O§U„U†O·O§U‚/O¹O±USO¶OOE O­UˆO§U„US/OaU‚O±USO¨O§OOE O³USO§O±O© OO¬O±O© / OaO§UƒO³U‰OOE UˆO§U„O´O¨O§O¨/O§U„U…O±O§U‡U‚USU†OOE
O§O¨OaO§O¹/O´O±O§O¡.
U„O§ USUˆO¬O¯ “OaO·O§O¨U‚ UƒO§U…U„”. UƒU„U…O© UˆO§O­O¯O© USU…UƒU† OU† OaUƒUˆU† U…U†O§O³O¨O© UUS O¬U…U„O© OOE UˆU„UƒU† U…O±O§O¯UU‡ USUƒUˆU† O´O§O° O§U‹: UƒO§O«US O­OµU„Oa O¹U„U‰ O¥O¬O§O¨O©
UˆO§O­O¯O© OµO­USO­O© UU‚O· UUS O§U„O¥O®OaO¨O§O±.
O§U„U…O±O§O¯UO§Oa OaO®OaU„U UUS O§U„O´UƒU„USO§Oa: UˆO§U„O¯US O§O´OaO±U‰ U…O±UƒO¨O© O¶O®U…O© U…U‚O§O¨U„ OO¨US O§O´OaO±U‰ O³USO§O±O© UƒO¨USO±O©.
Two forms with opposite meanings are called antonyms, quick/slow, rich/poor, old/young, alive/dead, true/false.
Gradable antonyms can be used in comparative construction, e.g., bigger than/smaller than. The negative of one member of the pair does not imply the other: He is not old does not imply He is young.
With non-gradable antonym, the negative of one does indeed imply the other: He is not dead means He is alive.
Reversives mean not negative but to do the reverse, e.g., tie/untie, enter/exit, pack/unpack, lengthen/shorten, raise/lower, dress/undress.
O´UƒU„USU† U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O¨U…O¹U†U‰ U…OaU†O§U‚O¶ OaO³U…U‰ O§U„U…OaO¶O§O¯O§OaOOE O³O±USO¹/O¨O·USO¡OOE OoU†US/UU‚USO±OOE O¹O¬UˆO²/O´O§O¨OOE O­US/U…USOaOOE OµO­USO­/O®O§O·O¦.
O§U„U…OaO¶O§O¯O§Oa O§U„U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„OaU‚O¯USO± USU…UƒU† OU† OaO³OaO®O¯U… UUS O§U„O¨U†O§O¡ O§U„U…U‚O§O±U†OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE OUƒO¨O± U…U† / OOµOoO± U…U†. U…O§ U‡Uˆ O¹UƒO³ U…U† OO­O¯
O§U„O²UˆO¬USU† U„O§ USO¹U†US O§U„O¢O®O±: U‡Uˆ U„USO³ O¨O¹O¬UˆO² U„O§ USO¹U†US OU†U‡ O´O§O¨.
U…O¹ O§U„U…OaO¶O§O¯O§Oa O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„OaU‚O¯USO±OOE O¹UƒO³ OO­O¯U‡U… USO¹U†US UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹ O§U„O¢O®O±: U‡Uˆ U„U… USU…Oa USO¹U†US OU†U‡ O¹U„U‰ U‚USO¯ O§U„O­USO§O©.
O§U„U…OaO¹O§UƒO³O§Oa U„O§ USO¹U†US O§U„U†U‚USO¶ UˆU„UƒU† O§U„U‚USO§U… O¨O§U„O¹UƒO³ OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE O±O¨O·/ UUƒOOE O¯O®UˆU„/O®O±UˆO¬OOE O­O²U…O© / UUƒ OOE
O­O²U…)O§U„OU…OaO¹O©(/ OaUO±USOo)O§U„OU…OaO¹O©(OOE OaO·UˆUSU„/OaU‚OµUSO±OOE O±UO¹/ OaU†O²USU„OOE U„O¨O³)U…U„O§O¨O³U‡(/ O®U„O¹)U…U„O§O¨O³U‡(.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 7
Hyponymy means the meaning of form is included in the meaning of another, e.g., tulip is a hyponym of flower, dog/animal, Chihuahua/dog, carrot/vegetable.
Not only words that can be hyponyms, verbs too. (e.g., cut, punch, shoot, and stab are co-hyponyms of the superordinate injureaE
O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© O¨USU† O§U„UƒU„U…O© UˆOµU†UU‡O§ USO¹U†US USOaU… OaO¶U…USU† U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ UUS U…O¹U†U‰ O¢O®O±OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE O§U„O®O²O§U…U‰ U‡Uˆ U…U† O§U„O²U‡O±O© OOE
O§U„UƒU„O¨/O§U„O­USUˆO§U†O§OaOOE OaO´USUˆO§UˆO§/UƒU„O¨OOE O¬O²O±/ O®O¶O§O±.
U„USO³ UU‚O· O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS USU…UƒU† OU† OaUƒUˆU† O°O§Oa O¹U„O§U‚O© U…O¹ OµU†UU‡O§ OOE UˆU„UƒU† O§U„OUO¹O§U„ OUSO¶O§. )O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE U‚O·O¹OOE U„UƒU…O© OOE UˆO§O·U„O§U‚
O§U„U†O§O±OOE Uˆ O·O¹U†O© U‡US UƒU„U…O§Oa co-hyponyms U…OµU†UO© U…O´OaO±UƒO© U„U “O¬O±O­”.
Homophony, Homonymy, and Polysemy:
1. When two or more different written forms have the same pronunciation, they are homophones, e.g., meat/meet, flour/flower, pail/pale, sew/so, see/sea, bare/bear.
: Homophony, Homonymy, and Polysemy
1.O¹U†O¯U…O§ USUƒUˆU† O§O«U†USU† OUˆ OUƒO«O± U…U† OO´UƒO§U„ U…O®OaU„UO© O¨O§U„UƒOaO§O¨O© UˆU„UƒU† U„U‡O§ U†UO³ O§U„U†O·U‚OOE UU‡US homophones .
meat U…USOa OaO¹U†US U„O­U… / meet U…USOa OaO¹U†US U„U‚O§O¡ OOE flower UU„O§UˆO± OaO¹U†US O²U‡O±O© / flour UU„O§UˆO± OaO¹U†US O·O­USU†.
2. When one form has two or more unrelated meanings, they are homonyms, e.g., bank (of a river) aE“ bank (financial institute), bat (flying creature) aE“ bat (used in sport), race (contest of speed) aE“ race (ethnic group), mole (on skin-animal)
1.O¹U†O¯U…O§ USUƒUˆU† O´UƒU„ UˆO§O­O¯ U„U‡ U…O¹U†USUSU† OUˆ OUƒO«O± U„O§ O¹U„O§U‚O© U„U‡U…O§ O¨O¨O¹O¶OOE UU‡Uˆ homonyms OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE O¨U†Uƒ )U†U‡O±( – O¨U†Uƒ
)U…O¤O³O³O© U…O§U„USO©(OOE O¨O§Oa )O®UO§O´( – O¨O§Oa )O§U„O¹OµO§ O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© UUS O§U„O±USO§O¶O©(OOE O±USO³ )U…O³O§O¨U‚O© O§U„O³O±O¹O©( – O±USO³ )U…O¬U…UˆO¹O© O¹O±U‚USO©(.
3.When one form has multiple meanings that are all related by extension, it is polysemy, e.g., head (the top of your body/the top of a company), foot (of a person, of bed, of mountain), run (person does, water does, color does).
3.O¹U†O¯U…O§ USUƒUˆU† O´UƒU„ UˆO§O­O¯ U„U‡ U…O¹O§U†US U…OaO¹O¯O¯O© UˆOaO±OaO¨O· O¬U…USO¹U‡O§ O§U…OaO¯O§O¯ O§U‹OOE UO¥U†U‡ polysemy OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE head ) O§U„O¬O²O¡
O§U„O¹U„UˆUS U…U† O¬O³U…Uƒ / O§U„O¬O²O¡ O§U„O¹U„UˆUS U…U† O´O±UƒO© ( Uˆ foot ) U‚O¯U…OOE U…U‚O¯U…O© O§U„O³O±USO±OOE U…U† O§U„O¬O¨U„ (OOE run )O´O®Oµ USO±UƒO¶ OOE UˆO§U„U…USO§U‡
OaO¬O±US OOE O§U„U„UˆU† USO³USO­(
How do you distinguish between homonymy and polysemy? Via dictionary.
Date (a point in time) -Date (fleshy fruit)
So they are homonyms.
Date (on a letter)
Date (an appointment)
Date (a social meeting with someone)
So they are polysemy.
UƒUSU USU…UƒU†Uƒ O§U„OaU…USUSO² O¨USU† O§U„OaO¬O§U†O³ Uˆ OaO¹O¯O¯ O§U„U…O¹O§U†US OY O¹U† O·O±USU‚ O§U„U‚O§U…UˆO³
date )OaO§O±USO®( – date )OaU…O±(
UU‡Uˆ homonyms )U„OU† O§U„UƒU„U…O© U†UO³U‡O§ U„UƒU† O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ U…O®OaU„U OaU…O§U… O§U‹(
date )OaO§O±USO® O¹U„U‰ O±O³O§U„O©(
date )OaO§O±USO® O§U„U…UˆO¹O¯ (
date )OaO§O±USO® U„U‚O§O¡ O¥O¬OaU…O§O¹US U…O¹ O´O®Oµ U…O§(
UU‡Uˆ polysemy )U„OU† O§U„UƒU„U…O© U†UO³U‡O§ UˆO§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„O¹O§U… OUSO¶O§U‹ U†UO³U‡(
Injure
Cut
Punch
Shoot
Stab
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 8
Lecture 3
Semantic Features
O§U„U…USO²O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©
Semantic features
One helpful approach to study meaning could be by the means of accounting for the oddnessaE we experience when we read sentences:
NP V NP
The hamburger ate the boy.
The table listens to the radio.
The horse is reading the newspaper.
The oddness of these sentences does not derive from their syntactic structure. According to the syntactic rules, we have well-formed structures.
These sentences are syntactically good, but semantically odd.
U…USO²O§Oa O¯U„O§U„USO©
U†U‡O¬ UˆO§O­O¯ U…UUSO¯ U„O¯O±O§O³O© O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ USU…UƒU† OU† USUƒUˆU† O¹U† O·O±USU‚ UˆO³O§O¦U„ O§U„U…O­O§O³O¨O© U„U “O§U„OoO±O§O¨O©” U†UƒOaO³O¨ O®O¨O±O© O¹U†O¯U…O§ U†U‚O±O O§U„O¬U…U„:
UO¹U„ O§O³U… O§O³U…
OUƒU„ O§U„U‡U…O¨O±OoO± O§U„UˆU„O¯.
OaO³OaU…O¹ O§U„O·O§UˆU„O© U„U„O±O§O¯USUˆ.
USU‚O±O O§U„O­OµO§U† O§U„O¬O±USO¯O©.
O§U„OoO±O§O¨O© U…U† U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„ U„O§ OaO´OaU‚ U…U† O¨U†USOaU‡O§ O§U„U†O­UˆUSO©. UˆUU‚O§ U„U„U‚UˆO§O¹O¯ O§U„U†O­UˆUSO© OOE U„O¯USU†O§ OaO±UƒUSO¨ U…U†O³U‚ O¨O´UƒU„ O¬USO¯ .
U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„ U‡US O¬USO¯O© U†O­UˆUSO§OOE UˆU„UƒU† OoO±USO¨O© U…O¹U†UˆUS O§U‹.
The hamburger ate the boy.
Since the sentence, The boy ate the hamburger is acceptable.
WhataE™s the problem?
The components of the noun hamburger must be significantly different from those of the noun boy, so only one can be used as the subject of the verb ate.
The kind of noun that can be the subject of the verb ate must denote an entity that is capable of eatingaE.
OUƒU„ O§U„U‡U…O¨O±OoO± O§U„UˆU„O¯
O¨U…O§ OU† O§U„O¬U…U„O© OUƒU„ O§U„UˆU„O¯ O§U„U‡U…O¨O±OoO± U…U‚O¨UˆU„O©.
U…O§ O§U„U…O´UƒU„O©OY
U…UƒUˆU†O§Oa O§U„O§O³U… O§U„U‡U…O¨O±OoO± USO¬O¨ OU† OaUƒUˆU† U…O®OaU„UO© UƒO«USO± O§ O¹U† OaU„Uƒ UUS O§U„O§O³U… O§U„UˆU„O¯OOE O¥O° O§U‹ UˆO§O­O¯ UU‚O· USU…UƒU† O§O³OaO®O¯O§U…U‡ U…O¹ O§U„UO¹U„ OUƒU„ .
U‡O°O§ O§U„U†UˆO¹ U…U† O§U„O§O³U… O§U„O°US USU…UƒU† OU† USUƒUˆU† UO§O¹U„ U„U„UO¹U„ OUƒU„ USO¬O¨ OU† USO¯U„ UƒUSO§U†U‡ UˆU‚O¯O±OaU‡ O¹U„U‰ “O§U„OUƒU„ “.
We need to determine the crucial semantic features that any noun must have in order to be used as the subject of the verb ate. Such an element may be as general as animate beingaE.
We can then use this idea to describe part of the meaning of words as either having (+) or not having (aˆ’) that particular feature.
So, the feature that the noun boy has is +animateaE and the feature that the noun hamburger has is aˆ’animateaE.
U†O­U† O¨O­O§O¬O© O¥U„U‰ OaO­O¯USO¯ U…USO²O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„O§Oa O§U„O­O§O³U…O© O§U„OaUS USO¬O¨ OU† OaUƒUˆU† UUS OUS UO§O¹U„ U…U† OO¬U„ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U…U‡O§ U…O¹ O§U„UO¹U„ OUƒU„. U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU†
U‡O°O§ O§U„O¹U†OµO± O§U„O¹O§U… U…O«U„ ” UƒO§O¦U† O­US ”
USU…UƒU†U†O§ O¨O¹O¯ O°U„Uƒ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… U‡O°U‡ O§U„UUƒO±O© U„UˆOµU O¬O²O¡ U…U† U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa UƒO¥U…O§ UˆO¬UˆO¯ )+( OUˆ O¹O¯U… UˆO¬UˆO¯ )-( OU† U…USO²O© U…O¹USU†O©.
O¥O° O§U‹ UO¥U† O§U„U…USO²O© O§U„OaUS OaU…USO² O§U„UO§O¹U„ O§U„UˆU„O¯ U‡US “+ O­US” +animateaE UˆO§U„U…USO²O© OU† O§U„U‡O§U…O¨O±OoO± UO§O¹U„ U‡US”- O­US”
-” animate ”
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 9
Componential Analysis
The term componential analysis is a semantic approach which assumes that word meaning can be described in terms of distinct components, many of which are binary.
Components are qualities embedded in any wordaE™s meaning, like the ones seen in dictionary definitions.
E.g., Dog refers to a mammal. Also, it refers to domesticated and carnivore.
OaO­U„USU„ O¹U†OµO±US
O§U„U…OµO·U„O­ O§U„OaO­U„USU„ O§U„O¹U†OµO±US U‡Uˆ O§U„U†U‡O¬ O§U„O¯U„O§U„US O§U„O°US USUOaO±O¶ OU† USUƒUˆU† U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„UƒU„U…O© U…UˆOµUˆU U…U† O­USO« O¹U†O§OµO± U…OaU…USO²O© UˆUƒO«USO±
U…U†U‡O§ O«U†O§O¦US.
O§U„O¹U†O§OµO± U‡US OµUO§Oa U„O§ OaOaO¬O²O U…U† U…O¹U†U‰ OUS UƒU„U…O©OOE O¹U„U‰ OoO±O§O± OaU„Uƒ O§U„OaO¹O±USUO§Oa O§U„OaUS UUS O§U„U‚O§U…UˆO³.
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE UƒU„O¨ USO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„O«O¯USUSO§Oa . OUSO¶O§ OOE UO¥U†U‡ USO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„O­USUˆO§U†O§Oa O§U„OU„USUO© UˆO¢UƒU„O© O§U„U„O­UˆU….
Dog [+mammal] [+domesticated] [+ carnivore]
Wolf [+mammal] [- domesticated] [+ carnivore]
One typical example assumes the features ANIMATE, HUMAN, MALE and ADULT.
That is known as componential analysis. This approach is used to analyze the meaning of certain types of nouns in terms of semantic features.
UƒU„O¨ ]+O§U„O«O¯USUSO§Oa[ ]+O§U„O­USUˆO§U†O§Oa O§U„OU„USUO©[ ]+O¢UƒU„O© O§U„U„O­UˆU…[
O§U„O°USO¨ ]+O§U„O«O¯USUSO§Oa[ ]-O§U„O­USUˆO§U†O§Oa O§U„OU„USUO©[ ]+O¢UƒU„O© O§U„U„O­UˆU…[
U…O«O§U„ UˆO§O­O¯ U†U…UˆO°O¬US USUOaO±O¶ O§U„O«O¯USUSO§OaOOE U…U† O§U„O¨O´O±OOE O°UƒO± UˆO¨O§U„Oo.
O°U„Uƒ USO¹O±U OU†U‡ O§U„OaO­U„USU„ O§U„O¹U†OµO±US. UˆUSO³OaO®O¯U… U‡O°O§ O§U„OO³U„UˆO¨ U„OaO­U„USU„ U…O¹U†U‰ OU†UˆO§O¹ U…O¹USU†O© U…U† O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ U…U† O­USO« O§U„O³U…O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©.
Analyzing meaning in terms of semantic features
OaO­U„USU„ O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ U…U† O­USO« O§U„O³U…O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©
table
O·O§UˆU„O©
horse
O­OµO§U†
boy
OµO¨US
man
O±O¬U„
girl
UOaO§O©
woman
O§U…O±OO©
animate O§U„O«O¯USUSO§Oa
– + + + + + human
U…U† O§U„O¨O´O±
– – + + + + female
OU†O«U‰
– – – – + + adult
O°UƒO±
– + – + – +
We can also characterize the semantic features that are required in a noun in order for it to appear as the subject of a particular verb.
The _____________ is reading the newspaper. N [+human]
This approach would help predict which nouns make this sentence semantically odd. (table, horse and hamburger)
USU…UƒU†U†O§ OUSO¶O§ OU† U†U…USO² O§U„O³U…O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© O§U„U…O·U„UˆO¨O© UUS O§O³U… U…O§ U…U† OO¬U„ OU† USO¸U‡O± UƒUO§O¹U„ U„UO¹U„ U…O¹USU†.
O§U„ _____ USU‚O±O O¬O±USO¯O©. O§U„UO§O¹U„]+U…U† O§U„O¨O´O±[
U‡O°O§ O§U„U†U‡O¬ U…U† O´OU†U‡ OU† USO³O§O¹O¯ O¹U„U‰ O§U„OaU†O¨O¤ OUS O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ OaO¬O¹U„ U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„O© OoO±USO¨O© U…O¹U†UˆUS O§ . )O§U„O·O§UˆU„O© OOE O§U„O­OµO§U† UˆO§U„U‡O§U…O¨O±O¬O±(
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 10
The approach is only a start on analyzing the conceptual components of word meaning, but it is not without problems.
For many words in a language, it may not be as easy to come up with neat components of meaning. Nouns, such as advice, threat and warning
O§U„U†U‡O¬ U‡Uˆ U…O¬O±O¯ O¨O¯O§USO© UUS OaO­U„USU„ O§U„U…UƒUˆU†O§Oa O§U„U…UO§U‡USU…USO© U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„UƒU„U…O© OOE UˆU„UƒU† U„USO³ U…U† O¯UˆU† U…O´O§UƒU„.
O¨O§U„U†O³O¨O© U„UƒO«USO± U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa UUS O§U„U„OoO©OOE U‚O¯ U„O§ USUƒUˆU† U…U† O§U„O³U‡U„ O§U„OaUˆOµU„ O¥U„U‰ U…UƒUˆU†O§Oa U…O±OaO¨O© U…U† O­USO« O§U„U…O¹U†U‰.
O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ OOE U…O«U„ O§U„U…O´UˆO±O© OOE O§U„OaU‡O¯USO¯ UˆO§U„OaO­O°USO±.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 11
Lecture 4
Semantic/Thematic roles O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO©/O§U„U…UˆO¶UˆO¹USO©
The “roles” words fulfill within the situation described by sentence.
The boy kicked to the ball.
The verb describes an action (kick).
The noun phrase (NP) in the sentence describes the roles of entities, such as people and things, involved in the action.
We can identify a small number of semantic roles (also called “thematic roles” for these noun phrases).
“O§U„OO¯UˆO§O±” UƒU„U…O§Oa OaUUS O¶U…U† O§U„O­O§U„O© UˆOaUˆOµU U…U† U‚O¨U„ O§U„O¬U…U„O©.
O±UƒU„ O§U„OµO¨US O§U„UƒO±O©.
USOµU O§U„UO¹U„ O­O±UƒO© )O§U„O±UƒU„(
O´O¨U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„O© O§U„O¥O³U…USO© OaOµU OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„UƒUSO§U†O§OaOOE U…O«U„ O§U„U†O§O³ UˆO§U„OO´USO§O¡ O§U„U…O´O§O±UƒUSU† UUS O§U„UO¹U„.
USU…UƒU†U†O§ OaO­O¯USO¯ O¹O¯O¯ U‚U„USU„ U…U† O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© )UˆOaO³U…U‰ OUSO¶O§ “O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„U…UˆO¶UˆO¹USO©” U„O´O¨U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„ O§U„O¥O³U…USO©( .
Agent and theme
The boy kicked the ball.
One role is taken by NP the boy and “the entity that performs the action” known as the agent.
Another role is taken by the ball of “the entity that is affected by the action” which is called the theme.
The theme can also be an entity (the ball) that is simply being described. (I.e. not performing action), as in The ball was red.
O§U„UO§O¹U„ UˆO§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡
O±UƒU„ O§U„OµO¨US O§U„UƒO±O©.
USOaU… OO®O° O¯UˆO± UˆO§O­O¯ U…U† U‚O¨U„ O´O¨U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„O© O§U„O¥O³U…USO© O§U„OµO¨USOOE ” O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„O°US USU†UO° O§U„O¹U…U„” USO¹O±U O¨O§U„UO§O¹U„.
USOaU… OO®O° O¯UˆO± O¢O®O± U…U† U‚O¨U„ O§U„UƒO±O©OOE ” O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„O°US USOaOO«O± O§U„O¹U…U„” USO³U…U‰ O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡.
O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡ USU…UƒU† OUSO¶ O§U‹ OU† USUƒUˆU† UƒUSO§U†O§ ) O§U„UƒO±O© ( O§U„OaUS USOaU… UˆOµUU‡O§ O¨O¨O³O§O·O©. )OUS U„O§ USO¤O¯US O§U„UO¹U„( OOE UƒU…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O§U„ O¬U…U„O©: UƒO§U†Oa
O§U„UƒO±O© O­U…O±O§O¡.
Agents and themes are the most common semantic roles
Although agents are typically human (the boy) they can also be non-human entities that cause action, as a natural force (the wind), a machine (A car), or creature (The dog), all of which affect the ball as theme.
The boy kicked the ball.
The wind blew the ball away.
A car ran over the ball.
The dog caught the ball.
O§U„UO§O¹U„ UˆO§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡ U‡US OUƒO«O± O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© O´USUˆO¹ O§U‹.
UˆO¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† O§U„UO§O¹U„ U‡Uˆ O¨O´O±US O¹O§O¯O© )O§U„OµO¨US( USU…UƒU† OUSO¶O§ OU† OaUƒUˆU† UƒUSO§U†O§Oa OoUSO± O¨O´O±USO© U…O³O¨O¨O© U„U„UO¹U„OOE UƒU‚UˆO© O§U„O·O¨USO¹USO©
)O§U„O±USO§O­( OOE O¢U„O© )O³USO§O±O©( OOE OUˆ U…O®U„UˆU‚ )O§U„UƒU„O¨( OOE UˆUƒU„U‡O§ OaO¤O«O± O¹U„U‰ O§U„UƒO±O© UƒU…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡.
O±UƒU„ O§U„OµO¨US O§U„UƒO±O©.
O·USU‘O±Oa O§U„O±USO§O­ O§U„UƒO±O© O¨O¹USO¯ O§.
O¯U‡O³Oa O§U„O³USO§O±O© O§U„UƒO±O©.
OU…O³Uƒ O§U„UƒU„O¨ O§U„UƒO±O©.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 12
Instrument and Experiencer
If an agent uses another entity in order to perform an action, that other entity fills the role of instrument.
The boy cut the rope with a razor.
He drew the picture with a piece of chalk.
O§U„OO¯O§O© UˆO§U„U…O¬O±O¨
O¥O°O§ O§O³OaO®O¯U… O§U„UO§O¹U„ UƒUSO§U† O¢O®O± U…U† OO¬U„ OaU†UUSO° UO¹U„ OOE USUƒUˆU† O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„O¢O®O± O§U„U…O¤O¯US U„O¯UˆO± O§U„OO¯O§O©.
U‚O·O¹ O§U„OµO¨US O§U„O­O¨U„ O¨O§U„O³UƒUSU†.
O±O³U… O§U„OµUˆO±O© O¨O§U„O·O¨O´UˆO±.
When a noun phrase is used to designate an entity as the person who has a feeling, perception or state, it fills the semantic role of experiencer.
If we see, know or enjoy something, we are not really performing an action (hence we are not agents). We are in the role of experiencer.
In the sentence: The boy feel sad, the experiencer (the boy) is the only semantic role.
In the question, Did you hear that noise? The experiencer is you and the theme is that noise.
O¹U†O¯ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O´O¨U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„O© O§U„O¥O³U…USO© U„OaO¹USUSU† UƒUSO§U† O¨O§O¹OaO¨O§O±U‡ O§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O°US U„O¯USU‡ O§O­O³O§O³OOE O¥O¯O±O§Uƒ OUˆ OaOµO±USO­OOE UO¥U†U‡ USO¤O¯US O§U„O¯UˆO±
O§U„O¯U„O§U„US U„U„U…O¬O±O¨.
O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† U„U†O§ OU† U†O±U‰ OOE UˆU†O¹O±U OUˆ U†O³OaU…OaO¹ O¨O´USO¡ OOE U†O­U† U„O§ U†O¤O¯US O§U„UO¹U„ )UˆO¨O§U„OaO§U„US U†O­U† U„O³U†O§ O§U„UO§O¹U„(OOE U†O­U† UUS O¯UˆO± O§U„U…O¬O±O¨.
UUS O§U„O¬U…U„O© : O§U„OµO¨US USO´O¹O± O¨O§U„O­O²U†OOE OµO§O­O¨ O§U„OaO¬O±O¨O© ) O§U„OµO¨US ( U‡Uˆ O§U„O¯UˆO± O§U„O¯U„O§U„US O§U„UˆO­USO¯.
UUS O§U„O³O¤O§U„OOE U‡U„ OaO³U…O¹ O°U„Uƒ O§U„O¶O¬USO¬ OY OµO§O­O¨ O§U„OaO¬O±O¨O© U‡Uˆ OU†Oa UˆO§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡ U‡Uˆ O°U„Uƒ O§U„O¶O¬USO¬.
Location, source and goal
A number of other semantic roles designate where an entity is in the description of an event.
Where an entity is (on the table, in the room) fills the role of location.
Where the entity moves from is the source (from Jeddah) and where it moves to is the goal (to Abha), as in We drove from Jeddah to Abha.
O¸O±U O§U„U…UƒO§U†OOE O§U„U…OµO¯O±OOE O§U„U‡O¯U
U‡U†O§Uƒ O¹O¯O¯ U…U† O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© O§U„OO®O±U‰ USO¹USU† UUSU‡O§ UƒUSO§U† O­USO« U‡Uˆ UˆOµU U„O­O¯O« U…O§.
O­USO« O§U„UƒUSO§U† U‡Uˆ ) O¹U„U‰ O§U„O·O§UˆU„O©OOE UUS O§U„OoO±UO©( USO¤O¯US O¯UˆO± O¸O±U O§U„U…UƒO§U†.
O§U„U…UƒO§U† O§U„O°US USOaO­O±Uƒ U…U†U‡ O§U„UƒUSO§U† U‡Uˆ O§U„U…OµO¯O± )U…U† O¬O¯U‡( UˆO­USO« USOaO­O±Uƒ U†O­Uˆ U‡Uˆ O§U„U‡O¯U )O¥U„U‰ OO¨U‡O§( OOE UƒU…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O§U„ UUS O§U„O¬U…U„O©OOE
O³O§UO±U†O§ U…U† O¬O¯U‡ O¥U„U‰ OO¨U‡O§ .
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 13
All semantic roles are illustrated in the following scenario:
Latifah saw a fly on the wall.
Experiencer/theme/location
Latifa borrowed a magazine from Ahmad.
Agent/theme/source
She squashed the fly with the magazine.
Agent/theme/instrument
She handed the magazine back to Ahmed.
Agent/theme/goal
Ooh, thanks, said Ahmed.
Agent UƒO§UO© O§U„OO¯UˆO§O± O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© U…UˆO¶O­O© UUS O§U„O³USU†O§O±USUˆ O§U„OaO§U„US:
O±OOa U„O·USUO© O¨O¹UˆO¶O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¬O¯O§O±.
O§U„U…O¬O±O¨/O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡/O¸O±U O§U„U…UƒO§U†
O§O³OaO¹O§O±Oa U„O·USUO© U…O¬U„O© U…U† OO­U…O¯.
O§U„UO§O¹U„/O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡/O§U„U…OµO¯O±
O³O­U‚Oa U‡US O§U„O¨O¹UˆO¶O© O¨O§U„U…O¬U„O©.
O§U„UO§O¹U„/O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡/O§U„U…O¬O±O¨
O³U„U‘U…Oa U‡US O§U„U…O¬U„O© U„OO­U…O¯.
O§U„UO§O¹U„/O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡/O§U„U‡O¯U
U‚O§U„ OO­U…O¯: OUˆUˆU‡OOE O´UƒO± O§ .
O§U„UO§O¹U„
Determining the role that the NPs play in the situations:
Agent: The entity that performs an action.
Theme: The entity undergoing an action or movement.
Instrument: The entity used to perform an action.
Experiencer: The entity that has a feeling, perception, or state.
Location: The place where an action occurs.
Source: The starting point for movement.
Goal: The endpoint for movement.
OaO­O¯USO¯ O§U„O¯UˆO± O§U„O°US OaU‚UˆU… O¨U‡ OO´O¨O§U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„ O§U„O¥O³U…USO© UUS O§U„O­O§U„O§Oa:
O§U„UO§O¹U„: O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„O°US USO¤O¯US O§U„UO¹U„.
O§U„U…UO¹UˆU„ O¨U‡: O®O¶UˆO¹ O§U„UƒUSO§U† U„UO¹U„ OUˆ O­O±UƒO©.
O§U„OO¯O§O©: O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U… U„OO¯O§O¡ O§U„UO¹U„.
O§U„U…O¬O±O¨: O§U„UƒUSO§U† O§U„O°US U„U‡ O¥O­O³O§O³OOE O¥O¯O±O§Uƒ OUˆ OaOµO±USO­
O¸O±U O§U„U…UƒO§U†: U…UƒO§U† O­O¯UˆO« O§U„UO¹U„.
O§U„U…OµO¯O±: U†U‚O·O© O§U„O¨O¯O§USO© U„U„O­O±UƒO©
O§U„U‡O¯U: U†U‚O·O© O§U„U†U‡O§USO© U„U„O­O±UƒO©
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 14
Lecture 5
One fact about concepts expressed by words is that their members can be graded in terms of their typicality.
A good example of this involves the concept Bird.
Even assuming that we all think of a bird as an animal that lays eggs, has feathers and can fly; we still feel that some of these creatures are more birdlike then others.
O­U‚USU‚O© UˆO§O­O¯O© O­UˆU„ O§U„U…UO§U‡USU… O§U„OaUS O¹O¨O±Oa O¹U†U‡O§ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa U‡Uˆ OU† OO¹O¶O§O¦U‡O§ USU…UƒU† USU‚USU…UˆO§ U…U† O­USO« U†U…O·USOaU‡U….
UˆO®USO± U…O«O§U„ O¹U„U‰ U‡O°O§ USU†O·UˆUS O¹U„U‰ U…UU‡UˆU… O§U„O·USUˆO±.
UˆO­OaU‰ U„Uˆ O§UOaO±O¶U†O§ OU†U†O§ O¬U…USO¹U†O§ USUUƒO± UUS O·USO± UƒO­USUˆO§U† USO¨USO¶ OOE U„O¯USU‡ O±USO´ Uˆ USU…UƒU† OU† USO·USO±O› U…O§ O²U„U†O§ U†O´O¹O± OU† O¨O¹O¶ U‡O°U‡
O§U„U…O®U„UˆU‚O§Oa U‡US OUƒO«O± O´O¨U‡O§U‹ O¨O§U„O¹OµO§UUSO± U…U† OoUSO±U‡O§.
While the words canary, dove, duck, flamingo, parrot and robin are all equally co-hyponyms of the superordinate bird, they are not all considered to be equally good examples of the category bird.
According to some researchers, the most characteristic instance of the category “bird” is robin. This idea is known as the prototype.
UUS O­USU† OU† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa UƒU†O§O±US OOE O­U…O§U…O© OOE O¨O·O© OOE UU„O§U…U†OoUˆOOE O¨O¨OoO§O¡ UˆO±UˆO¨U† UƒU„U‡O§ O¹U„U‰ U‚O¯U… U…OaO³O§UˆUSO© co-hyponyms U…U† U…OµU†UO©
U…O´OaO±UƒO© U„U„O·USUˆO±OOE UU‡US U„O§ OaO¹OaO¨O± UƒU„U‡O§ OU…O«U„O© O¬USO¯O© O¹U„U‰ O­O¯ O³UˆO§O¡ U…U† UO¦O© O§U„O·USUˆO±.
UˆUˆUU‚O§ U„O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O¨O§O­O«USU† OOE O§U„OUƒO«O± OaU…USO² O§U‹ U…U† UO¦O© ” O§U„O·USUˆO±” U‡Uˆ O§U„O±UˆO¨U† . UˆOaO¹O±U U‡O°U‡ O§U„UUƒO±O© UƒU…O§ UUS O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ .
The concept of prototype helps explain the meaning of certain words, like bird, not in terms of semantic features (e.g. “has feathers”, “has wings”), but in terms of resemblance to the clearest example.
Thus, even native speakers of English might wonder if ostrich or penguin should be hyponyms of bird, but have no trouble deciding about sparrow or pigeon.
These last two are much closer to the Prototype.
U…UU‡UˆU… O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ USO³O§O¹O¯ O¹U„U‰ OaUO³USO± U…O¹U†U‰ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa OOE U…O«U„ O·USO±OOE UˆU„USO³ U…U† O­USO« O§U„O³U…O§Oa O§U„O¯U„O§U„USO© )O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ “U„O¯USU‡O§
O±USO´ ” OOE “U„O¯USU‡O§ OO¬U†O­O©”(OOE UˆU„UƒU† U…U† O­USO« O§U„OaO´O§O¨U‡ UUS O§U„U…O«O§U„ O§U„OUˆO¶O­.
UˆU‡UƒO°O§OOE O­OaU‰ O§U„U†O§O·U‚USU† O¨O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO© U‚O¯ USOaO³O§O¡U„UˆU† U„Uˆ O§U„U†O¹O§U… OUˆ O§U„O¨O·O±USU‚ USU†O¨OoUS OU† USUƒUˆU†UˆO§ U…OµU†UUSU† U…U† O§U„O·USUˆO±OOE UˆU„UƒU† U„USO³
U„O¯USU‡U… OµO¹UˆO¨O© UUS O¥OaO®O§O° O§U„U‚O±O§O± O­UˆU„ O¹OµUUˆO± OUˆ O­U…O§U…O©.
U‡O°O§U† O§U„O§O«U†O§U† O¨O§U„OO®USO± U‡U… O§U„OU‚O±O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ .
The following is a chart showing the Prototype of a bird based on the judgment of California undergraduate (Katamba 2005)
UˆUUSU…O§ USU„US O±O³U… O§U‹ O¨USO§U†US O§U‹ USUˆO¶O­ U†U…UˆO°O¬ U„O·O§O¦O± O§O³OaU†O§O¯O§ O¥U„U‰ O­UƒU… UƒO§U„USUUˆO±U†USO§ O§U„O¬O§U…O¹USO©
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 15
What is a Prototype then?
Prototype is about mental representation of meaning or categorization.
Let’s define a bird: has feathers, grown from an egg, can fly, makes sounds and so on.
If I asked you now, if an ostrich or a penguin is a bird, chances are high that you would say yes, while they don’t fit the definition. And this is where prototypes come into play.
What we are dealing with is a gradual categorization of meaning with an instance of representation.
U…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ O¥O° O§ OY
O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ U‡Uˆ O­UˆU„ O§U„OaU…O«USU„ O§U„O¹U‚U„US U„U„U…O¹U†U‰ OUˆ O§U„OaOµU†USU.
O¯O¹UˆU†O§ U†O­O¯O¯ O§U„O·USUˆO±: U„O¯USU‡O§ O±USO´ OOE UƒO¨O±Oa U…U† O¨USO¶O© OOE USU…UƒU† OU† OaO·USO± OOE OaO­O¯O« O§U„OOµUˆO§Oa .. O¥U„U‰ O¢O®O±U‡.
U„Uˆ O·U„O¨Oa U…U†Uƒ O§U„O¢U† OOE U„Uˆ O§U„U†O¹O§U…O© OUˆ O§U„O¨O·O±USU‚ O·O§O¦O± OOE O§U„O§O­OaU…O§U„O§Oa UƒO¨USO±O© O¨OU† OaU‚UˆU„ U†O¹U… OOE UUS O­USU† OU†U‡O§ U„O§ OaU†O§O³O¨ U‡O°O§ O§U„OaO¹O±USU.
UˆU‡U†O§ USOOaUS O¯UˆO± O§U„U†U…O§O°O¬ .
U…O§ U†OaO¹O§U…U„ U…O¹U‡ U‡Uˆ O§U„OaOµU†USU O§U„OaO¯O±USO¬US U„U„U…O¹U†U‰ U…O¹ U†U…UˆO°O¬ O§U„OaUˆO¶USO­ .
A Prototype is an object or referent that is considered typical for the whole set.
Thus, if you encounter the concept door in isolation and immediately think of a door swinging on hinges rather than one that slides or rotates.
That kind of door is, for you, the prototype for all doors.
But not everybody is likely to have the same Prototype for a particular set.
O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ U‡Uˆ UƒO§O¦U† OUˆ U…O±O¬O¹ O§U„O°US USO¹OaO¨O± U†U…UˆO°O¬ O§ U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O© UƒO§U…U„O©.
UˆU‡UƒO°O§ OOE O¥O°O§ UˆO§O¬U‡Uƒ U…UU‡UˆU… O¨O§O¨ UUS O¹O²U„O© OOE O§U„UUˆO±O§U‹ OaUUƒO± O¨O¨O§O¨ USOaOO±O¬O­ O¹U„U‰ U…UO§OµU„ O¨O¯U„O§ U…U† O¨O§O¨ O³O­O¨ OUˆ O¨O§O¨ USO¯UˆO±.
U‡O°O§ O§U„U†UˆO¹ U…U† O§U„OO¨UˆO§O¨ OOE O¨O§U„U†O³O¨O© U„UƒOOE O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ U„O¬U…USO¹ O§U„OO¨UˆO§O¨.
UˆU„UƒU† U„USO³ O§U„O¬U…USO¹ O¹U„U‰ O§U„OO±O¬O­ U„O¯USU‡U… U†UO³ O§U„U†U…UˆO°O¬ U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O© U…O¹USU†O© .
Given the category label furniture, we are quick to recognize chair as a better example than bench or stool.
Given clothing, people recognize shirts quicker than shoes, and given vegetables, they accept carrot before potato or tomato.
O¨O¥O¹O·O§O¡ UO¦O© OaO³U…USO© OO«O§O«OOE U†O­U† O¨O³O±O¹O© U†O¯O±Uƒ O§U„UƒO±O³US UƒU…O«O§U„ OUO¶U„ U…U† U…U‚O¹O¯ O·UˆUSU„ OUˆ U…U‚O¹O¯ OµOoUSO±.
UˆU†O¸O± O§U‹ U„U„U…U„O§O¨O³OOE USO¯O±Uƒ O§U„U†O§O³ O§U„U‚U…OµO§U† OO³O±O¹ U…U† O§U„OO­O°USO©OOE UˆO¨O§U„O®O¶O±UˆO§OaOOE UO¥U†U‡U… USU‚O¨U„UˆU† O§U„O¬O²O± U‚O¨U„ O§U„O¨O·O§O·O³ OUˆ O§U„O·U…O§O·U….
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 16
Lecture 6
Reference U…O±O¬O¹
A referring expression is a noun phrase that is used in an utterance and is linked to something outside language, some living or dead or imaginary entity.
That aE˜somethingaE™ is the referent.
A referring expression is not a referent; the phrase a banana can be a referring expression but it is not a banana.
Washington has three syllables, and 600,000 peopleaE.
O§U„OaO¹O¨USO± O§U„U…O´USO± U‡Uˆ O¹O¨O§O±O© O§O³U…USO© OaO³OaO®O¯U… UUS O§U„UƒU„O§U… Uˆ USO±OaO¨O· O¥U„U‰ O´USO¡ O®O§O±O¬ O§U„U„OoO©OOE USU…UƒU† OU† USUƒUˆU† UƒUSO§U† O­US OUˆ U…USOa OUˆ
UˆU‡U…US. O°U„Uƒ “O§U„O´USO¡” U‡Uˆ O§U„U…O±O¬O¹.
O§U„OaO¹O¨USO± O§U„U…O´USO± U„USO³ U…O±O¬O¹O› O§U„OaO¹O¨USO± U…UˆO²O© USU…UƒU† OU† USUƒUˆU† OaO¹O¨USO± U…O´USO± UˆU„UƒU†U‡ U„USO³ U…UˆO²O©.
“UˆO§O´U†OoOaUˆU† U„U‡O§ O«U„O§O« U…U‚O§O·O¹OOE Uˆ 066,666 O´O®Oµ.”
The existence of a referring expression does not guarantee the existence of a referent in the physical-social world.
We can easily use language to create expressions with fictitious referents such as:
the skyscrapers of Alahssa
the river of Riyadh
the present King of the USA
UˆO¬UˆO¯ OaO¹O¨USO± U…O´USO± U„O§ USO¶U…U† UˆO¬UˆO¯ U…O±O¬O¹ UUS O§U„O¹O§U„U… O§U„U…O§O¯US UˆO§U„O§O¬OaU…O§O¹US. USU…UƒU†U†O§ O¨O³U‡UˆU„O© O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„U„OoO© U„O¥U†O´O§O¡ OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa U…O¹
U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa UˆU‡U…USO© U…O«U„:
U†O§O·O­O§Oa O³O­O§O¨ O§U„OO­O³O§O¡
U†U‡O± O§U„O±USO§O¶
O§U„U…U„Uƒ O§U„O­O§U„US U„U„UˆU„O§USO§Oa O§U„U…OaO­O¯O© O§U„OU…O±USUƒUSO©
Primary referring expressions
like a dog, your friend, George Adams, the flowers in that basket; (they refer directly to their referents). O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O§U„U…O´USO±O© O§U„OO³O§O³USO©
U…O«U„ UƒU„O¨OOE OµO¯USU‚UƒOOE O¬UˆO±O¬ O¢O¯U…O²OOE O§U„O²U‡UˆO± O¨OaU„Uƒ O§U„O³U„O©O› )OU†U‡O§ OaO´USO± U…O¨O§O´O±O© O¥U„U‰ U…O±O¬O¹USO§OaU‡O§(
Secondary referring expressions
like he, the big ones, ours, that one. These expressions are headed by pronouns and they refer indirectly; their referents can only be determined from primary referring expressions in the context in which they are used. O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O§U„U…O´USO±O© O§U„O«O§U†UˆUSO©
U…O«U„ U‡UˆOOE O§U„UƒO¨USO±O© U…U†U‡O§OOE U…U„UƒU†O§OOE OaU„Uƒ. UˆUSO±OO³ U‡O°U‡ O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O¶U…O§O¦O± UˆOU†U‡O§ OaO´USO± O¨O´UƒU„ OoUSO± U…O¨O§O´O±O› USU…UƒU† OaO­O¯USO¯ U…O±O¬O¹USO§OaU‡O§ UU‚O·
U…U† OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa U…O´USO±O© OO³O§O³USO© UUS O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„O°US OaO³OaO®O¯U… UUSU‡.
Referents differ from one another in 3 ways:
Unique like Lake Ontario vs. Non-unique like a lake;
Concrete, such as an orange, vs. Abstract, an idea;
Countable like a bottle, several bottles vs. Non-countable like milk
O§U„U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa OaO®OaU„U O¹U† O¨O¹O¶U‡O§ O§U„O¨O¹O¶ O¨O«U„O§O« O·O±U‚:
UO±USO¯ U…U† U†UˆO¹U‡ U…O«U„ O¨O­USO±O© OUˆU†OaO§O±USUˆ U…U‚O§O¨U„ OoUSO± UO±USO¯ U…O«U„ O¨O­USO±O©O›
U…U„U…UˆO³ U…O«U„ O¨O±OaU‚O§U„O© U…U‚O§O¨U„ U…O¬O±O¯ U…O«U„ UUƒO±O©O›
U…O¹O¯UˆO¯ U…O«U„ U‚U†USU†O© OOE O¹O¯O© U‚U†USU†O§Oa U…U‚O§O¨U„ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ U…O«U„ O­U„USO¨
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 17
First, Unique and non-unique referents
We swam in Lake Ontario.
We swam in a lake.
Both of the underlined noun phrases are referring expressions. They might have the same referent, but a lake can refer to various bodies of water whereas Lake Ontario always refers to the same body of water. OUˆU„O§U‹OOE U…O±O§O¬O¹ UO±USO¯O© U…U† U†UˆO¹U‡O§ UˆOoUSO± UO±USO¯O©
O³O¨O­U†O§ UUS O¨O­USO±O© OUˆU†OaO§O±USUˆ.
O³O¨O­U†O§ UUS O¨O­USO±O©.
UƒU„OaO§ O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„O¥O³U…USO© O§U„OaUS OaO­OaU‡O§ O®O· UUS OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa U…O´USO±O©. U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† U„O¯USU‡U…O§ U†UO³ O§U„U…O±O¬O¹ OOE UˆU„UƒU† O¨O­USO±O© USU…UƒU† OU† USO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O¨U‚O§O¹
U…O®OaU„UO© U…U† O§U„U…USO§U‡ UUS O­USU† O¨O­USO±O© OUˆU†OaO§O±USUˆ USO´USO± O¯O§O¦U…O§ O¥U„U‰ U†UO³ O§U„O¨U‚O¹O© U…U† O§U„U…O§O¡.
Fixed reference: Lake Ontario, Japan, Barak Obama, the Philippine Islands
Variable reference: that dog, my uncle, several people, a lake, the results
U…O±O¬O¹ O«O§O¨Oa: O¨O­USO±O©OUˆU†OaO§O±USUˆOOE O§U„USO§O¨O§U†OOE O¨O§O±O§Uƒ OUˆO¨O§U…O§OOE O¬O²O± O§U„UU„O¨USU†
U…O±O¬O¹ U…OaOoUSO±: O°U„Uƒ O§U„UƒU„O¨OOE O¹U…USOOE O¹O¯O© OO´O®O§OµOOE O¨O­USO±O©OOE O§U„U†OaO§O¦O¬
Fixed Reference iĬ Inference
For example, in a restaurant, one waiter can ask another, WhereaE™s the cucumber salad sitting? and receive the reply, HeaE™s sitting by the window.
You might ask someone, Can I look at your Chomsky? And get the response, Sure, itaE™s on the shelf over there. These examples make it clear that we can use names associated with things (salad) to refer to people, and use names of people (Chomsky) to refer to things.
An inference is additional information to connect between what is said and what must be meant.
U…O±O¬O¹ O«O§O¨Oa iƒ§ O§O³OaU†OaO§O¬
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE UUS U…O·O¹U…OOE U†O§O¯U„ USU…UƒU† OU† USO³OU„ O¢O®O±OOE OUSU† OaO¬U„O³ O³U„O·O© O§U„O®USO§O±OY UˆUSO­OµU„ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±O¯OOE OaO¬U„O³ O¨O¬UˆO§O± O§U„U†O§UO°O©.
U‚O¯ OaO³OU„ O´O®Oµ U…O§OOE USU…UƒU† OU† OU†O¸O± O¥U„U‰ O§U„OaO´UˆU…O³UƒUS O§U„O®O§Oµ O¨UƒOY UˆOaO­OµU„ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±O¯OOE O¨O§U„OaOUƒUSO¯OOE O§U†U‡O§ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±U U‡U†O§Uƒ. U‡O°U‡
O§U„OU…O«U„O© OaUˆO¶O­ OU†U‡ USU…UƒU†U†O§ OU† U†O³OaO®O¯U… OO³U…O§O¡ U…O±OaO¨O·O© O¨OO´USO§O¡ )O³U„O·O©( U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ OO´O®O§OµOOE UˆU†O³OaO®O¯U… OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„OO´O®O§Oµ
)OaO´UˆU…O³UƒUS( U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ OO´USO§O¡. O§U„O§O³OaU†OaO§O¬ U‡Uˆ U…O¹U„UˆU…O§Oa O¥O¶O§UUSO© U„OaOµU„ O¨USU† U…O§ USU‚O§U„ UˆU…O§ USO¬O¨ OU† USUƒUˆU† O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯.
Second, Concrete and abstract referents
Words such as dog, door, leaf, stone denote concrete objects, which can be seen or touched; the objects denoted by words like idea, problem, reason, knowledge are abstract; they cannot be perceived directly through the senses.
Words occur in different utterances may have different effects on other words. Consider these contrasts:
the key to the front door // the key to success
a bright light // a bright future key and bright have literal meanings when they occur in concrete contexts and figurative meanings in abstract contexts.
O«O§U†USO§ U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa U…U„U…UˆO³O© Uˆ U…O¬O±O¯O©
UƒU„U…O§Oa U…O«U„ UƒU„O¨OOE O¨O§O¨OOE UˆO±U‚O© O´O¬O±OOE O­O¬O± OaO¯U„ O¹U„U‰ O§U„OO´USO§O¡ O§U„U…U„U…UˆO³O©OOE UˆO§U„OaUS USU…UƒU† O±O¤USOaU‡O§ OUˆ U„U…O³U‡O§O› O§U„OO´USO§O¡ O§U„O¯O§U„O© O¨UˆO§O³O·O©
UƒU„U…O§Oa U…O«U„ UUƒO±O©OOE U…O´UƒU„O©OOE O³O¨O¨OOE U…O¹O±UO© U‡US U…O¬O±O¯O©O› U„O§ USU…UƒU† O§U„U†O¸O± O¥U„USU‡O§ U…O¨O§O´O±O© U…U† O®U„O§U„ O§U„O­UˆO§O³.
O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa OaO¸U‡O± UUS O§U„OO­O§O¯USO« O§U„U…O®OaU„UO© UˆU‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† U„U‡O§ OaOO«USO±O§Oa U…O®OaU„UO© O¹U„U‰ UƒU„U…O§Oa OO®O±U‰. U„U†U†O¸O± O¥U„U‰ U‡O°U‡ O§U„OaO¨O§USU†O§Oa:
O§U„U…UOaO§O­ U„U„O¨O§O¨ O§U„OU…O§U…US // U…UOaO§O­ O§U„U†O¬O§O­
O¶UˆO¡ U…O´O±U‚ // U…O³OaU‚O¨U„ U…O´O±U‚
U…UOaO§O­ UˆU…O´O±U‚ U„U‡O§ U…O¹O§U†US O­O±UUSO© O¹U†O¯ UˆU‚UˆO¹U‡O§ UUS O³USO§U‚O§Oa U…U„U…UˆO³O© UˆU…O¹O§U†US U…O¬O§O²USO© UUS O³USO§U‚O§Oa U…O¬O±O¯O©.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 18
Third, Countable and non-countable referents
Noun phrases in English are either countable or non-countable.
Both countable and non-countable noun phrases may be concrete or abstract.
Concrete countable expressions refer to items that are separate from one another, like apples, coins, pens and toothbrushes, which can ordinarily be counted one by one. Abstract countable phrases have such nouns as idea, problem, suggestion.
O«O§U„O«O§ U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© UˆOoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯
O§U„O¬U…U„ O§U„O¥O³U…USO© UUS O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO© U‡US O¥U…O§ U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© OUˆ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯.
UƒU„OaO§ O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„O¥O³U…USO© O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© UˆO§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ U‚O¯ OaUƒUˆU† U…U„U…UˆO³O© OUˆ U…O¬O±O¯O©.
O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© O§U„U…U„U…UˆO³O© OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„OO´USO§O¡ O§U„OaUS OaU†UOµU„ O¹U† O¨O¹O¶U‡O§ O§U„O¨O¹O¶OOE U…O«U„ O§U„OaUO§O­O§OaOOE UˆO§U„O¹U…U„O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯U†USO©OOE O§U„OU‚U„O§U… Uˆ
UO±O´ O§U„OO³U†O§U†OOE UˆO§U„OaUS USU…UƒU† O¹O§O¯O© O¹O¯ UˆO§O­O¯ O§U‹ OaU„Uˆ O§U„O¢O®O±. O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© O§U„U…O¬O±O¯O© U„O¯USU‡O§ U…O«U„ U‡O°U‡ O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ U…O«U„ UUƒO±O©OOE U…O´UƒU„O©OOE
O§U‚OaO±O§O­.
Non-countable referents
Non-countable phrases, if their references are concrete, have 3 kinds of reference:
Some refer to continuous substances, such as apple sauce, ink, mud and toothpaste, which do not consist of natural discrete parts.
Others name substances that consist of numerous particles not worth counting, like sand and rice.
A few non-countables are like furniture, jewelry, luggage, collections whose parts have quite different names. O§U„U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯
O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯OOE O¥O°O§ UƒO§U†Oa U…O±O§O¬O¹U‡O§ U…U„U…UˆO³O©OOE U„O¯USU‡O§ O«U„O§O« OU†UˆO§O¹ U…U† O§U„U…O±O¬O¹:
O¨O¹O¶U‡O§ USO±O¬O¹ O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…UˆO§O¯ O§U„U…OaOµU„O©OOE U…O«U„ OµU„OµO© O§U„OaUO§O­OOE O§U„O­O¨O±OOE O§U„O·USU† UˆU…O¹O¬UˆU† O§U„OO³U†O§U†OOE Uˆ O§U„OaUS U„O§ OaOaUƒUˆU† U…U† O¬O³USU…O§Oa
U…U†UOµU„O© O·O¨USO¹USO©.
O§U„O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O¢O®O± USO³U…US O§U„U…UˆO§O¯ OaU„Uƒ O§U„OaUS OaOaUƒUˆU† U…U† O§U„O¹O¯USO¯ U…U† O§U„O¬O³USU…O§Oa OU†U‡O§ U„O§ USO³OaO­U‚ O§U„O¹O¯OOE U…O«U„ O§U„O±U…U„ UˆO§U„OO±O².
U‡U†O§Uƒ O¹O¯O¯ U‚U„USU„ U…U† O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„OaUS OaO¹O¯ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ U…O«U„ O§U„OO«O§O«OOE O§U„U…O¬UˆU‡O±O§OaOOE O§U„OU…OaO¹O©OOE UˆO§U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O§Oa O§U„OaUS U‚O·O¹U‡O§ U„U‡O§ OO³U…O§O¡
U…O®OaU„UO© OaU…O§U… O§U‹.
Abstract non-countables such as advice, information, beauty, are treated in the English language as indivisible.
iĬ an apple, a coin, a pen, a toothbrush
some apples, some coins, some pens, some toothbrushes
some apple sauce, some mud, some ink, some toothpaste
O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„U…O¬O±O¯O© O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ U…O«U„ O§U„U…O´UˆO±O©OOE O§U„U…O¹U„UˆU…O§OaOOE O§U„O¬U…O§U„OOE OaO¹O§U…U„ UUS O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO© O¹U„U‰ OU†U‡O§ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„OaO¬O²O¦O©.
iƒ§ OaUO§O­O©OOE O¹U…U„O© U…O¹O¯U†USO©OOE U‚U„U…OOE UO±O´O§O© OO³U†O§U†
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OaUO§O­OOE O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O¹U…U„O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯U†USO©OOE O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OU‚U„O§U…OOE O¨O¹O¶ UO±O´ O§U„OO³U†O§U†
O¨O¹O¶ OµU„OµO© O§U„OaUO§O­OOE O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O·USU†OOE O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O­O¨O±OOE O¨O¹O¶ U…O¹O¬UˆU† O§U„OO³U†O§U†
The singular countable noun phrase must have an overt specifier; the plural countable and non-countable may have a zero specifier; the specifier some can be replaced by zero in the last two lines above.
O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O© O§U„O¥O³U…USO© O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© O§U„U…UO±O¯O© USO¬O¨ OU† USUƒUˆU† U„O¯USU‡O§ U…O­O¯U‘ O¯ OµO±USO­. U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† O¬U…O¹ O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯ UˆO§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ U„O¯USU‡O§ U…O­O¯O¯ U†UƒO±O© O›
O§U„U…O­O¯O¯ O¨O¹O¶ USU…UƒU† OU† OaO³OaO¨O¯U„ O¨U†UƒO±O© UUS O¢O®O± O³O·O±USU† OO¹U„O§U‡.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 19
Certain animals are named in countable phrases but when considered as food the names appear in non-countable phrases.
(a) chicken, (a) lobster, (a) turkey
In contrast, there are animal names of Anglo-Saxon origin such as cow, calf, pigaE”all countable nounsaE”matched by food names of Norman-French origin: beef, veal, pork, which are non-countable.
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„O­USUˆO§U†O§Oa OaO³U…U‰ UUS O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© UˆU„UƒU† O¹U†O¯U…O§ OaO¹OaO¨O± O·O¹O§U… OaO¸U‡O± O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ UUS O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯.
O¯O¬O§O¬O©OOE O³U„O·O¹UˆU†OOE O¯USUƒ O±UˆU…US
UUS O§U„U…U‚O§O¨U„OOE U‡U†O§Uƒ OO³U…O§O¡ O­USUˆO§U†USO© U…U† OOµU„ O§U„OU†O¬U„UˆO³UƒO³UˆU†USO©)O§U„U…U‡O§O¬O±USU† U…U† OUˆO±UˆO¨O§ O¥U„U‰ O¨O±USO·O§U†USO§ O§U„O¹O¸U…U‰( U…O«U„ O¨U‚O±O©OOE O¹O¬U„OOE
O®U†O²USO±- UƒU„U‡O§ OO³U…O§O¡ U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© – OaO·O§O¨U‚ OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„OOoO°USO© O°O§Oa O§U„OOµU„ O§U„U†UˆO±U…O§U†US O§U„UO±U†O³US: U„O­U… O§U„O¨U‚O±OOE U„O­U… O§U„O¹O¬U„OOE U„O­U… O§U„O®U†O²USO±OOE
UˆO§U„OaUS U‡US OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯.
Some nouns name substances when they occur in non-countable phrases and in countable phrases designate items originally made from those substances.
glass, iron, paper, a glass, an iron, a paper
What is regarded as a substance, so non-countable, may appear in a countable phrase to
indicate a certain quantity or type of the substance.
a coffee various soups several cheeses
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ OaO³U…US O§U„U…UˆO§O¯ O¹U†O¯ O¸U‡UˆO±U‡O§ UUS O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯ UˆUUS O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© U…UˆO§O¯ U…O´USO±O©)OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰( UˆU‡US
U…O±UƒO¨O© OOµU„O§ U…U† OaU„Uƒ O§U„U…UˆO§O¯.
O²O¬O§O¬OOE O­O¯USO¯OOE UˆO±U‚ UƒOO³OOE U…UƒUˆO§O©OOE UˆO±U‚O©
OUS O´USO¡ USO¹OaO¨O± U…O§O¯O©OOE OUSO¶ O§U‹ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„ U„U„O¹O¯OOE U‚O¯ USO¸U‡O± UUS O¹O¨O§O±O© U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ UƒU…USO© U…O¹USU†O© OUˆ U†UˆO¹ O§U„U…O§O¯O©.
O§U„U‚U‡UˆO© O´UˆO±O¨O§Oa U…O®OaU„UO© O¹O¯O© OO¬O¨O§U†
At the end countable/non-countable discussion,
They are nouns that name collections of itemsaE”furniture, jewelry, luggageaE”which are always non-countable.
The specific items included in these collections are indicated by countable nounsaE”chair, bed; necklace, ring; trunk, suitcase.
In other instances there are matching nouns: rain and raindrop, snow and snowflake.
There are a few nouns which occur only as plurals: scissors, tweezers; trousers, shorts, jeans, etc.
UUS U†U‡O§USO© U…U†O§U‚O´O© O§U„U…O¹O¯UˆO¯ / O§U„OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„ U„U„O¹O¯OOE
U‡US O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„OaUS OaO³U…U‰ U…O¬U…UˆO¹O§Oa U…U† O§U„U‚O·O¹ – O§U„OO«O§O«OOE O§U„U…O¬UˆU‡O±O§OaOOE O§U„OU…OaO¹O© – O§U„OaUS U‡US O¯O§O¦U… O§U‹ OoUSO± U‚O§O¨U„O© U„U„O¹O¯.
O§U„O¹U†O§OµO± O§U„U…O­O¯O¯O© O§U„U…O¯O±O¬O© UUS U‡O°U‡ O§U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O§Oa U…O­O¯O¯O© U…U† U‚O¨U„ OO³U…O§O¡ U…O¹O¯UˆO¯O© aE“ UƒO±O³US UˆO³O±USO±O› U‚U„O§O¯O© UˆO®O§OaU…O› OµU†O¯UˆU‚ UˆO­U‚USO¨O©
O±O¬O§U„ OO¹U…O§U„.
UUS O­O§U„O§Oa OO®O±U‰ U‡U†O§Uƒ OO³U…O§O¡ U…O·O§O¨U‚O©: O§U„U…O·O± UˆU‚O·O±O§Oa O§U„U…O·O±O› O§U„O«U„O¬ UˆU‚O´O±O© O§U„O«U„O¬.
U‡U†O§Uƒ O¹O¯O¯ U‚U„USU„ U…U† O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ O§U„OaUS OaO¸U‡O± UU‚O· UƒU…O§ OµUSOo O§U„O¬U…O¹: U…U‚OµO§Oa UˆU…U„O§U‚O· O› UˆO§U„O¨U†O§O·U„USU† UˆO§U„O³O±O§UˆUSU„ UˆO§U„O¬USU†O²OOE O§U„O®.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 20
Lecture 7
Deixis UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„O¥O´O§O±O©
Deixis
Very common words in our language canaE™t be interpreted at all, if we donaE™t know the physical context of the speaker. These are words such as here and there, this or that, now and then, yesterday, today or tomorrow, as well as pronouns such as you, me, she, him, it, them. Some sentences of English are virtually impossible to understand if we donaE™t know who is speaking, about – whom, where and when.
UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„O¥O´O§O±O©
U„O§ USU…UƒU† OaUO³USO± O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„O´O§O¦O¹O© O¬O¯ O§U‹ UUS U„OoOaU†O§ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¥O·U„O§U‚OOE O¥O°O§ UƒU†O§ U„O§ U†O¹O±U O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U…O§O¯US U„U„U…OaO­O¯O«. U‡O°U‡ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa U…O«U„ U‡U†O§
UˆU‡U†O§UƒOOE UˆU‡O°O§ OUˆ O°O§UƒOOE O§U„O¢U† UˆUUS O°U„Uƒ O§U„UˆU‚OaOOE OU…O³OOE O§U„USUˆU… OUˆ OoO¯ O§OOE UˆUƒO°U„Uƒ O§U„O¶U…O§O¦O± U…O«U„ OU†OaOOE OU†O§OOE U‡USOOE U‡UˆOOE U‡O°O§OOE U‡U…. O¨O¹O¶
O§U„O¬U…U„ UUS O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO© U…U† O§U„U…O³OaO­USU„ OaU‚O±USO¨ O§U‹ OU† U†UU‡U… O¥O°O§ UƒU†O§ U„O§ U†O¹O±U U…U† USOaO­O¯O«OOE O¹U† – U… U†OOE OUSU† UˆU…OaU‰.
YouaE™ll have to bring it back tomorrow because she isnaE™t here today.
Out of context, this sentence is really vague.
(i.e. that the delivery driver will have to return on February 15 to Building 7 with the large PlayStation box addressed to Khalid Ali).
tomorrow and here are obvious examples of bits of language that we can only understand in terms of the speakeraE™s intended meaning. They are technically known as deictic expressions, from the Greek word deixis, which means pointingaE via language.
O³USUƒUˆU† O¹U„USUƒ O¥O¹O§O¯OaU‡ OoO¯ O§ U„OU†U‡O§ U„USO³Oa U‡U†O§ O§U„USUˆU….
O®O§O±O¬ O§U„O³USO§U‚OOE U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¬U…U„O© U…O¨U‡U…O© UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹.
)U…O«O§U„ OU† O³O§O¦U‚ O§U„OaO³U„USU… O³UˆU USO¶O·O± U„U„O¹UˆO¯O© UUS 51 UO¨O±O§USO± U„U…O¨U†U‰ 7 U…O¹ OµU†O¯UˆU‚ O§U„O¨U„O§US O³OaUSO´U† O§U„UƒO¨USO± O§U„U…UˆO¬U‡ U„O¹U†UˆO§U† O®O§U„O¯
O¹U„US(
OoO¯ O§ UˆU‡U†O§ OU…O«U„O© UˆO§O¶O­O© O¹U„U‰ OO¬O²O§O¡ O¶OoUSO±O© U…U† O§U„U„OoO© O§U„OaUS USU…UƒU†U†O§ OU† U†UU‡U…U‡O§ UU‚O· U…U† O­USO« O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯ U„U„U…OaO­O¯O«. U‡U…O§
U…O¹O±UˆUO§U† U…U† O§U„U†O§O­USO© O§U„UU†USO© O¨UˆOµUU‡U…O§ OaO¹O¨USO± O§ O¥O´O§O±US O§ OOE U…U† O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„UƒU„U…O© O§U„USUˆU†O§U†USO© deixis O§U„OaUS OaO¹U†US “USO´USO±” O¹O¨O± O§U„U„OoO©.
We use deixis to point to things (it, this, these boxes) and people (him, them, those students), sometimes called personal deixis.
Words and phrases used to point to a location (here, there, near that) are examples of spatial deixis, and those used to point to a time (now, then, last week) are examples of temporal deixis.
U†O­U† U†O³OaO®O¯U… deixis U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ O§U„OO´USO§O¡ )U‡O°O§OOE U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¹U„O¨( UˆO§U„U†O§O³ )U‡UˆOOE U‡ U…OOE U‡O¤U„O§O¡ O§U„O·U„O§O¨( OOE UˆOaO³U…U‰ OO­USO§U† O§U‹ O§U„O¥O´O§O±O©
O§U„O´O®OµUSO©.
O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa UˆO§U„O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…UˆU‚O¹ ) U‡U†O§ OOE U‡U†O§UƒOOE U‚O±O¨ O°U„Uƒ( U‡US OU…O«U„O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„U…UƒO§U†USO©OOE UˆOaU„Uƒ
O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ O§U„UˆU‚Oa )O§U„O¢U† OOE UUS O°U„Uƒ O§U„UˆU‚OaOOE O§U„OO³O¨UˆO¹ O§U„U…O§O¶US ( U‡US OU…O«U„O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„O²U…U†USO©.
All these deictic expressions have to be interpreted in terms of which person, place or time the speaker has in mind.
We make a broad distinction between what is marked as close to the speaker (this, here, now) and what is distant (that, there, then).
UƒU„ U‡O°U‡ O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O§U„O¥O´O§O±USO© USO¬O¨ OU† USOaU… OaUO³USO±U‡O§ U…U† O­USO« U…U† U‡Uˆ O§U„O´O®Oµ OUˆ O§U„U…UƒO§U† OUˆ O§U„UˆU‚Oa O§U„O°US USO¶O¹U‡ O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« UUS O¨O§U„U‡.
UˆU†O­U† U†U…USU‘O² OaU…USUSO² UˆO§O³O¹ O§U„U†O·O§U‚ O¨USU† U…O§ U‡Uˆ U‚O±USO¨ U…U† O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« )U‡O°O§OOE U‡U†O§OOE O§U„O¢U†( UˆU…O§ U‡Uˆ O¨O¹USO¯ )O°U„UƒOOE U‡U†O§UƒOOE UUS O°U„Uƒ O§U„UˆU‚Oa(.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 21
We can also indicate whether movement is away from the speakeraE™s location (go) or toward the speakeraE™s location (come). If youaE™re looking for someone and she appears, moving toward you, you can say, Here she comes! If, however, she is moving away from you in the distance, youaE™re more likely to say, There she goes! The same deictic effect explains the different situations in which you would tell someone to, Go to bed vs. Come to bed.
USU…UƒU†U†O§ OUSO¶O§ OU† U†O¨USU‘U† U…O§ O¥O°O§ UƒO§U†Oa O§U„O­O±UƒO© O¨O¹UƒO³ O¥OaO¬O§U‡ U…UˆU‚O¹ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… )O§U„O°U‡O§O¨( OUˆ O¨O¥OaO¬O§U‡ U…UˆU‚O¹ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… )O§U„U‚O¯UˆU…(. O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa OaO¨O­O«
O¹U† O´O®Oµ U…O§OOE UˆO¸U‡O±OaOOE OaOaO­O±Uƒ O¨O¥OaO¬O§U‡UƒOOE USU…UƒU†Uƒ OU† OaU‚UˆU„OOE U‡O°U‡ U‡US U‚O§O¯U…O©! O¥O°O§ UƒO§U†OaOOE U…O¹ O°U„UƒOOE OaOaO­O±Uƒ O¨O¹UƒO³ O¥OaO¬O§U‡Uƒ UUS
O§U„U…O³O§UO©OOE O§U„U…O±O¬O­ OU† OaU‚UˆU„OOE OaU„Uƒ U‡US O°O§U‡O¨O©! U†UO³ O§U„OaOO«USO± O§U„O¥O´O§O±US USUˆO¶O­ O§U„O­O§U„O§Oa O§U„U…O®OaU„UO© O§U„OaUS UƒU†Oa U„OaO®O¨O± OO­O¯ O§U‹OOE U„U„O°U‡O§O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O³O±USO±
U…U‚O§O¨U„ OaO¹O§U„ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O³O±USO±.
People can actually use deixis to have some fun. The coffee-shop owner who puts up a big sign that reads Free Coffee Tomorrow (to get you to return to the coffee-shop) can always claim that you are just one day too early for the free drink.
USU…UƒU† U„U„U†O§O³ UO¹U„O§ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© U„U„O­OµUˆU„ O¹U„U‰ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OaO³U„USO©. OµO§O­O¨ O§U„U…U‚U‡U‰ O§U„O°US USO¶O¹ U„O§UOaO© UƒO¨USO±O© O§U„OaUS OaUU‚O±O U‚U‡UˆO© U…O¬O§U†USO©
OoO¯ O§ )U„OaO¬O¹U„Uƒ OaO¹UˆO¯ O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…U‚U‡U‰( USU…UƒU† OU† USO¯O¹US O¯O§O¦U… O§U‹ OU†Uƒ O¬O¦Oa U…O¨UƒO± O§U‹ O¬O¯ O§U‹ OUS USUˆU… UˆO§O­O¯ UU‚O· U‚O¨U„ O§U„USUˆU… O§U„U…O­O¯O¯ U„U„U…O´O±UˆO¨
O§U„U…O¬O§U†US.
One basic way of referring to something is to point to it. Every language has deictic words which aE˜pointaE™ to aE˜thingsaE™ in the physical-social context of the speaker and addressee. For example, if we should encounter a written or recorded message like:
I was disappointed that you didnaE™t come this afternoon.
I hope youaE™ll join us tomorrow.
We wouldnaE™t be able to identify the referents of I, you, us, this afternoon or tomorrow; The meaning of any deictic elements can only be interpreted through their contexts.
O·O±USU‚O© UˆO§O­O¯O© OO³O§O³USO© U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„U‰ O´USO¡ U…O§ U‡US U„OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O°U„Uƒ. UƒU„ U„OoO© U„U‡O§ UƒU„U…O§Oa O¥O´O§O±USO© O§U„OaUS ‘OaO´USO±’ O¥U„U‰ ‘O§U„OO´USO§O¡’ UUS O§U„O³USO§U‚
O§U„U…O§O¯US UˆO§U„O¥O¬OaU…O§O¹US U…U† O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« UˆO§U„U…OaO­O¯O« O¥U„USU‡. O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† U„U†O§ OU† U†UˆO§O¬U‡ O±O³O§U„O© U…UƒOaUˆO¨O© OUˆ U…O³O¬U„O© U…O«U„:
O´O¹O±Oa O¨O®USO¨O© OU…U„ OU†Uƒ U„U… OaOOa O¨O¹O¯ O¸U‡O± U‡O°O§ O§U„USUˆU….
OOaU…U†U‰ U…U†Uƒ OU† OaU†O¶U… O¥U„USU†O§ OoO¯ O§.
English deictic words include
(1) Personal diexis: I, you and we, which aE˜pointaE™ to the participants in any speech; he, she, it and they, when used to refer to others in the environment.
(2) Spatial deixis: here and there, which designate space close to the speaker or farther away; this/these and that/those, which indicate entities close to or removed from the speaker.
(3) temporal deixis: now, then, yesterday, today, tomorrow, last week, next month, etc. all relative to the time.
O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„O¥O´O§O±USO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO© OaO´U…U„
)1( O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„O´O®OµUSO©: OU†O§OOE OU†Oa UˆU†O­U† OOE UˆO§U„OaUS aE˜ OaO´USO± aE˜ U„U„U…O´O§O±UƒUSU† UUS OUS O®O·O§O¨. U‡UˆOOE U‡USOOE U‡O°O§ UˆU‡U…OOE OaO³OaO®O¯U… O¹U†O¯U…O§
U†O´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„O¢O®O±USU† UUS O§U„U…O­USO·.
)2( O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„U…UƒO§U†USO©: U‡U†O§ UˆU‡U†O§UƒOOE UˆO§U„OaUS OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…O³O§UO© O§U„U‚O±USO¨O© U…U† O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« OUˆ O§U„OO¨O¹O¯. U‡O°O§/U‡O¤U„O§O¡ Uˆ O°U„Uƒ/U‡O¤U„O§O¡OOE
UˆO§U„OaUS OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„UƒUSO§U†O§Oa O§U„U‚O±USO¨O© OUˆ O§U„U…O¨O¹O¯O© O¹U† O§U„U…OaO­O¯O«.
)3( O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„O²U…U†USO©: O§U„O¢U†OOE UUS O°U„Uƒ O§U„UˆU‚OaOOE OU…O³OOE O§U„USUˆU…OOE OoO¯ O§OOE O§U„OO³O¨UˆO¹ O§U„U…O§O¶USOOE O§U„O´U‡O± O§U„U…U‚O¨U„OOE O§U„O®. UƒU„U‡O§ OaU†OaO³O¨
U„U„UˆU‚Oa.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 22
Words which can be deictic are not always so
Today and tomorrow are deictic in We canaE™t go today, but tomorrow will be fine.aE They are not deictic in TodayaE™s costly apartment buildings may be tomorrowaE™s slums.aE
Similarly, here and there are deictic in James hasnaE™t been here yet. Is he there with you?aE They are not deictic in The children were running here and there.aE
The pronoun you is not deictic when used with the meaning aE˜one; any person or persons,aE™ as in You can lead a horse to water but you canaE™t make him drink.aE
O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS USU…UƒU† OU† OaUƒUˆU† O¥O´O§O±USO© U„USO³Oa O¯O§O¦U… O§ U‡UƒO°O§
O§U„USUˆU… UˆOoO¯ O§ O¥O´O§O±USO© UUS “U„O§ USU…UƒU† OU† U†O°U‡O¨ O§U„USUˆU…OOE UˆU„UƒU† OoO¯ O§ O³UˆU USUƒUˆU† O¹U„U‰ U…O§ USO±O§U….” UˆU‡US U„USO³Oa O¥O´O§O±USO© UUS ” U‚O¯ OaUƒUˆU†
O§U„U…O¨O§U†US O§U„U…UƒU„UO© O§U„O³UƒU†USO© O§U„USUˆU… O§U„OO­USO§O¡ O§U„UU‚USO±O© U„U„OoO¯.”
UˆO¨O§U„U…O«U„OOE U‡U†O§ UˆU‡U†O§Uƒ O¥O´O§O±USO© UUS “O¬USU…O³ U„U… USOOaUS O¥U„U‰ U‡U†O§ O­OaU‰ O§U„O¢U†. U‡U„ U‡Uˆ U‡U†O§Uƒ U…O¹UƒOY” UˆU‡US U„USO³Oa O¥O´O§O±USO© UUS “UƒO§U†
O§U„OO·UO§U„ USO±UƒO¶UˆU† U‡U†O§ UˆU‡U†O§Uƒ.”
O§U„O¶U…USO± OU†Oa U„USO³Oa O¥O´O§O±USO© O¹U†O¯ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U…U‡O§ U…O¹ O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ “OO­O¯U‡U…O› OUS O´O®Oµ OUˆ OO´O®O§OµOOE” UƒU…O§ UUS “USU…UƒU†Uƒ OU† USU‚UˆO¯ O§U„O­OµO§U†
O§U„U‰ O§U„U…O§O¡ UˆU„UƒU† U„O§ USU…UƒU†Uƒ O¥O¬O¨O§O±U‡ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O´O±O¨.”
Anaphora
We usually make a distinction between introducing new referents (a puppy) and referring back to them (the puppy, it).
We saw a funny YouTube video about a boy washing a puppy in a small bath.
The puppy started struggling and shaking and the boy got really wet.
When he let go, it jumped out of the bath and ran away.
O§U„O¬U†O§O³
U†O­U† O¹O§O¯O© OaU†U…USO² O¨USU† O¥O¯O®O§U„ U…O±O¬O¹USO§Oa O¬O¯USO¯O© )O¬O±Uˆ( UˆO¨O§U„O±O¬UˆO¹ U„U‡U… )O§U„O¬O±UˆOOE O°U„Uƒ(
O´O§U‡O¯U†O§ O´O±USO· UUSO¯USUˆ USUˆOaUSUˆO¨ U…O¶O­Uƒ O¹U† OµO¨US USOoO³U„ O¬O±Uˆ UUS O­U…O§U… OµOoUSO±.
O¨O¯O O¬O±Uˆ USU†O§O¶U„ Uˆ UˆUSU†OaUO¶ UˆOaO¨U„U„ OµO¨US O­U‚ O§ .
O¹U†O¯U…O§ O¯O¹O§U‡ UˆO´OU†U‡OOE U‚UO² U…U† O§U„O­U…O§U… UˆUˆU„U‰ U‡O§O±O¨ O§ .
In this type of referential relationship, the second referring expression is an example of anaphora (referring backaE).
The first mention is called the antecedent.
So, in our example, a boy, a puppy and a small bath are antecedents andThe puppy, the boy, he, it and the bath are anaphoric expressions.
UUS U‡O°O§ O§U„U†UˆO¹ U…U† O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© O§U„U…O±O¬O¹USO©OOE O§U„OaO¹O¨USO± O§U„O¥O´O§O±US O§U„O«O§U†US U‡Uˆ U…O«O§U„ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¬U†O§O³ )”USO±O¬O¹ O¥U„U‰”(.
O§U„U…O°UƒUˆO± O§U„OUˆU„ USO³U…U‰ O§U„O³O§O¨U‚O©.
UˆU‡UƒO°O§OOE UUS U…O«O§U„U†O§OOE OµO¨US OOE O¬O±Uˆ UˆO­U…O§U… OµOoUSO± U‡US O³O§O¨U‚O§Oa UˆO§U„O¬O±UˆOOE O§U„OµO¨USOOE U‡UˆOOE U‡O°O§ UˆO§U„O­U…O§U… U‡US OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa O¬U†O§O³USO©.
Anaphora can be defined as subsequent reference to an already introduced entity.
Mostly we use anaphora in texts to maintain reference. The connection between an
antecedent and an anaphoric expression is created by use of a pronoun (it), or a phrase with the plus the antecedent noun (the puppy), or another noun that is related to the antecedent in some way (The little dog ran out of the room).
O§U„O¬U†O§O³ USU…UƒU† OaO¹O±USUU‡O§ O¨OU†U‡O§ O¥O´O§O±O© OaO§O¨O¹O© O¥U„U‰ UƒUSO§U† U…U‚O¯U… O³O§O¨U‚ O§U‹.
UUS O§U„OoO§U„O¨ U†O³OaO®O¯U… O§U„O¬U†O§O³ UUS O§U„U†OµUˆOµ U„U„O­UO§O¸ O¹U„U‰ O§U„U…O±O¬O¹USO©. O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© O¨USU† O§U„O³O§O¨U‚O© UˆO§U„OaO¹O¨USO± O§U„O¬U†O§O³US USOaU… O¥U†O´O§O¤U‡O§ O¹U† O·O±USU‚
O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„O¶U…USO± )U‡Uˆ( OOE OUˆ O¹O¨O§O±O© U…O¹ O¥O¶O§UOaU‡O§ O¥U„U‰ O³O§O¨U‚O© O¥O³U…USO© )O§U„O¬O±Uˆ(OOE OUˆ O¥O³U… O§U‹ O¢O®O± USU†OaO³O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O³O§O¨U‚O© O¨O·O±USU‚O© U…O§ )O§U„UƒU„O¨
O§U„OµOoUSO± O±UƒO¶ O®O§O±O¬ O§ U…U† O§U„OoO±UO©.(
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 23
Lecture 8
Collocations O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚
Collocations
Words tend to occur with other words: blond + hair.
Fast car not quick car! Fast food not quick food.
Quick glance not fast glance. Quick meal not fast meal.
These examples help to illustrate FirthaE™s (5915) argument: You shall know a word by the company it keeps.aE
Certain words tend to appear together or keep companyaE. This keeping company is what is called in semantics collocationaE.
O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚
UƒU„U…O§Oa OaU…USU„ O¥U„U‰ OU† OaOaUˆO§O¬O¯ U…O¹ UƒU„U…O§Oa OO®O±U‰: O´O¹O± + OO´U‚O±
O³USO§O±O© O³O±USO¹O© UˆU„USO³ O³USO§O±O© U…O³OaO¹O¬U„O©! O§U„UˆO¬O¨O§Oa O§U„O³O±USO¹O© UˆU„USO³ O§U„UˆO¬O¨O§Oa O§U„U…O³OaO¹O¬U„O©.
U„U…O­O© O®O§O·UO© UˆU„USO³ U„U…O­O© O³O±USO¹O©. UˆO¬O¨O© O³O±USO¹O© UˆU„USO³ UˆO¬O¨O© U…O³OaO¹O¬U„O©.
U‡O°U‡ O§U„OU…O«U„O© OaO³O§O¹O¯ O¹U„U‰ OaUˆO¶USO­ O­O¬O© UUSO±O« ) 5915 ( U‚O§O¦U„O§ : “O¹U„USUƒ OU† OaUU‡U… O§U„UƒU„U…O© O¹U† O·O±USU‚ O§U„O±UU‚O© O§U„OaUS U…O¹U‡O§”.
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa OaU…USU„ U„U„O¸U‡UˆO± U…O¹ O§U‹ OUˆ “OaOOaUS O¨O±UU‚O©” . U‡O°U‡ O§U„O±UU‚O© U‡Uˆ U…O§ USO³U…U‰ UUS O¹U„U… O§U„O¯U„O§U„O© “O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚”.
A collocation is a pair or group of words that are often used together. These combinations sound natural to native speakers, but how about students of English?
Some collocations are fixed, for example take a photo, where no word other than take collocates with photo to give the same meaning.
Some collocations are more open, where several different words may be used to give a similar meaning, for example keep to / stick to the rules.
O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚ U‡Uˆ O²UˆO¬ OUˆ U…O¬U…UˆO¹O© U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS OoO§U„O¨ O§U‹ U…O§ OaO³OaO®O¯U… U…O¹ O§U‹. U‡O°U‡ O§U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O§Oa USO³U…O¹U‡O§ O¨O´O·U„ O·O¨USO¹US
O§U„U†O§O·U‚USU† O¨U‡O§OOE UˆU„UƒU† U…O§O°O§ O¹U† O·U„O§O¨ O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO©OY
USOaU… O¥OµU„O§O­ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹O§Oa O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚O©OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ O¥U„OaU‚O§O· OµUˆO±O©OOE O­USO« U„O§ USUˆO¬O¯ UƒU„U…O© OO®O±U‰ OoUSO± O¥U„OaU‚O§O· OaO¬OaU…O¹ O¨O´UƒU„
U…OaU†O§O³U‚ U…O¹ OµUˆO±O© U„O¥O¹O·O§O¡ U†UO³ O§U„U…O¹U†U‰.
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹O§Oa O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚O© OUƒO«O± O­O±USO©OOE O­USO« USU…UƒU† O§O³OaO®O¯O§U…U‡O§ O¹O¯O© UƒU„U…O§Oa U…O®OaU„UO© U„O¥O¹O·O§O¡ U…O¹U†U‰ U…O´O§O¨U‡OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„
O­UO§O¸ O¹U„U‰ / O¥O§U„O²U… O§U„U‚UˆO§U†USU†.
Here are some more examples of collocations:
1. You must make an effort and study for your exams (NOT do an effort)
2. Did you watch TV last night? (NOT look at TV)
3. This car has a very powerful engine. (NOT strong engine)
Sometimes, a pair of words may not be absolutely wrong, and people will understand what is meant, but it may not be the natural, normal collocation.
I did a few mistakes vs. I made a few mistakes.
UˆU‡U†O§ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OU…O«U„O© OUƒO«O± U…U† O±OµU:
.1 USO¬O¨ O¨O°U„ O§U„O¬U‡O¯ UˆO§U„O¯O±O§O³O© U„U„O¥U…OaO­O§U†O§Oa O§U„O®O§OµO© O¨Uƒ. )U„USO³ UO¹U„ O§U„O¬U‡O¯(
.2 U‡U„ O´O§U‡O¯Oa O§U„OaU„UO²USUˆU† U„USU„O© O§U„O¨O§O±O­O©OY )U„USO³ U†O¸O±Oa U„U„OaU„UO²USUˆU†(
.3 U‡O°U‡ O§U„O³USO§O±O© U„O¯USU‡O§ U…O­O±Uƒ U‚UˆUS O¬O¯ O§U‹. )U„USO³ U…O­O±Uƒ O¬O¨U‘O§O±(
UUS O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO­USO§U†OOE O²UˆO¬ U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa U‚O¯ U„O§ USUƒUˆU† O®O§O·O¦ OaU…O§U… O§U‹OOE UˆO§U„U†O§O³ O³UˆU OaUU‡U… U…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯OOE UˆU„UƒU† U‚O¯ U„O§ USUƒUˆU† O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹
O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚ O§U„O·O¨USO¹US O§U„O¹O§O¯US.
O¹U…U„Oa O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO®O·O§O¡ U…U‚O§O¨U„ UO¹U„Oa O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO®O·O§O¡.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 24
Why learn collocations?
a) Give you the most natural way to say something: smoking is strictly forbidden is more natural than smoking is strongly forbidden.
b) Give you alternative ways of saying something, which may be more expressive or more precise: instead of repeating, It was very cold and very dark, we can say It was bitterly cold and pitch dark.
c) Improve your style in writing: instead of saying poverty causes crime, you can say poverty breeds crime; instead of saying a big meal you can say a substantial meal.
U„U…O§O°O§ U†OaO¹U„U… O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚OY
O( OaO¹O·USUƒ OUƒO«O± O·O±USU‚O© O·O¨USO¹USO© U„OaU‚UˆU„ O´USO¦ O§ : )O§U„OaO¯O®USU† U…U…U†UˆO¹ U…U†O¹ O§ O¨O§Oa O§ ( U‡Uˆ OUƒO«O± O·O¨USO¹USO©U‹ )U…U† O§U„OaO¯O®USU† U…U…U†UˆO¹ U…U†O¹ O§ O¨U‚UˆO©(
O¨( OaO¹O·USUƒ O·O±U‚ O¨O¯USU„O© U„OaU‚UˆU„ O´USO¦ O§ OOE UˆO§U„O°US U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† OUƒO«O± OaO¹O¨USO±O§ OUˆ OUƒO«O± O¯U‚O©: UO¨O¯U„O§ U…U† OaUƒO±O§O±OOE UƒO§U† O¨O§O±O¯ O§ O¬O¯ O§ UˆU…O¸U„U…O§ O¬O¯ O§
USU…UƒU†U†O§ OU† U†U‚UˆU„ UƒO§U† O¨O±O¯ U‚O§O±O³ UˆO¸U„O§U… O¯O§U…O³.
O¬( USO­O³U† OO³U„UˆO¨Uƒ UUS O§U„UƒOaO§O¨O©: O¨O¯U„O§ U…U† OU† OaU‚UˆU„ O§U„UU‚O± USO³O¨O¨ O§U„O¬O±USU…O©OOE USU…UƒU†Uƒ O§U„U‚UˆU„ O§U„UU‚O± USUˆU„O¯ O§U„O¬O±USU…O©O› O¨O¯U„O§ U…U† OU† OaU‚UˆU„
UˆO¬O¨O© O¶O®U…O© OaO³OaO·USO¹ OU† OaU‚UˆU„ UˆO¬O¨O© O±O¦USO³USO©.
Finding collocations
You can train yourself to notice them whenever you read or listen to anything in English.
1. Cathy had promised to give her sister a call as soon as she got home but she decided to run herself a bath first. She had a sharp pain in her side and hoped that a hot bath might ease the pain.
2. any good learner’s dictionary. For example, sharp
a sharp pain iƒ¨ a sharp bend/turnaE¦ a sharp difference/distinctionaE¦ a sharp increase/drop
Learning collocations is not so different from learning any vocabulary item. There are many different types of collocations.
O¥USO¬O§O¯ O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚
USU…UƒU†Uƒ OaO¯O±USO¨ U†UO³Uƒ U„OaU„O§O­O¸U‡O§ UƒU„U…O§ U‚O±OOa OUˆ O§O³OaU…O¹Oa O¥U„U‰ OUS O´USO¡ O¨O§U„U„OoO© O§U„O¥U†O¬U„USO²USO©.
1. UˆO¹O¯Oa UƒO§O«US O¨O¥O¹O·O§O¡ O´U‚USU‚OaU‡O§ U…UƒO§U„U…O© UUS OU‚O±O¨ UˆU‚Oa O¹U†O¯ UˆOµUˆU„U‡O§ U„U„U…U†O²U„ U„UƒU†U‡O§ U‚O±O±Oa OO®O° O§O³OaO­U…O§U… OUˆU„O§ . UƒO§U† U„O¯USU‡O§ OU„U…
O­O§O¯ UUS O¬O§U†O¨U‡O§OOE UˆUƒO§U†Oa OaOU…U„ UUS OU† O§U„O­U…O§U… O§U„O³O§O®U† U‚O¯ USO®UU U…U† O§U„OU„U….
2. OUS U‚O§U…UˆO³ U„U„U…OaO¹U„U… O§U„O¬USO¯. O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE O­O§O¯O©
OU„U… O­O§O¯ iƒ§ U…U†O¹O·U O­O§O¯ / U„UU‘O© … O¥O®OaU„O§U O­O§O¯ / OaU…USUSO² … O²USO§O¯O© O­O§O¯O© / O§U†O®UO§O¶
OaO¹U„U… O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹ O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚ U„O§ USO®OaU„U UƒO«USO± O§U‹ O¹U† OaO¹U„U… OUS O´USO¡ U…U† U…O¹O§U†US O§U„U…UO±O¯O§Oa. U‡U†O§Uƒ OU†UˆO§O¹ O¹O¯USO¯O© U…O®OaU„UO© U…U† O§U„OaO¬U…USO¹O§Oa
O§U„U…OaU†O§O³U‚O© .
Adjectives and nouns
Notice adjectives that are typically used with particular nouns.
Jean always wears bright color.
We had a brief chat about the exams.
Unemployment is a major problem for the government at the moment.
O§U„OµUO§Oa Uˆ O§U„OO³U…O§O¡
U„O§O­O¸ O§U„OµUO§Oa O§U„OaUS OaO³OaO®O¯U… O¹O§O¯O© U…O¹ OO³U…O§O¡ U…O¹USU†O©.
O¬USU† OaO±OaO¯US O¯O§O¦U… O§U‹ OU„UˆO§U† O²O§U‡USO©.
O¯O±O¯O´U†O§ O¯O±O¯O´O© U…O®OaOµO±O© O­UˆU„ O§U„O§U…OaO­O§U†O§Oa.
O§U„O¨O·O§U„O© U…O´UƒU„O© O±O¦USO³USO© U„O¯U‰ U„O­UƒUˆU…O© UUS O§U„UˆU‚Oa O§U„O±O§U‡U†.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 25
Nouns and verbs
The examples below are all to do with economics and business:
The economy boomed in the 1990s, [the economy was very strong]
The company has grown and now employs 50 more people than last year.
The company has expanded and now has branches in most major cities.
The two companies merged in 2003 and now form one very large corporation.
O§U„OO³U…O§O¡ UˆO§U„OUO¹O§U„
O§U„OU…O«U„O© OO¯U†O§U‡ U‡US UƒU„U‡O§ U„U‡O§ O¹U„O§U‚O© O¨O§U„O§U‚OaOµO§O¯ UˆO§U„OO¹U…O§U„:
O§O²O¯U‡O± O§U„O§U‚OaOµO§O¯ UUS O§U„OaO³O¹USU†USO§Oa O§U„U…USU„O§O¯USO© ] UƒO§U† O§U„O§U‚OaOµO§O¯ U‚UˆUS O§U‹ O¬O¯ O§U‹[
U†U…Oa O§U„O´O±UƒO© UˆUSO¹U…U„ O§U„O¢U† 55 O´O®Oµ O§U‹ OUƒO«O± U…U† O§U„O¹O§U… O§U„U…O§O¶US.
OaUˆO³O¹Oa O§U„O´O±UƒO© UˆU„U‡O§ UO±UˆO¹ UUS U…O¹O¸U… O§U„U…O¯U† O§U„UƒO¨O±U‰ O§U„O¢U†.
O§U†O¯U…O¬Oa O§U„O´O±UƒOaO§U† UUS O¹O§U… 2553 OOE UˆO§U„O¢U† OaO´UƒU„ O´O±UƒO© UˆO§O­O¯O© UƒO¨USO±O© O¬O¯ O§U‹.
Noun + noun (aaE¦ ofaE¦)
Sam read the lies about him, he felt a surge of anger, [literary: a sudden angry feeling]
Every parent feels a sense of pride when their child does well or wins something.
O§O³U… + O§O³U…
O³O§U… U‚O±O O§U„OUƒO§O°USO¨ O§U„OaUS UƒOaO¨Oa O¹U†U‡OOE O´O¹O± O¨U…UˆO¬O© U…U† O§U„OoO¶O¨OOE ] O§U„OO¯O¨USO©: O´O¹UˆO± O¨O§U„OoO¶O¨ O§U„U…UO§O¬O¦ [ .
UƒU„ U…U† O§U„UˆO§U„O¯USU† USO´O¹O± O¨O¥O­O³O§O³ O§U„UO®O± O¹U†O¯U…O§ USU‚UˆU… O·UU„U‡O§ O¨O¹U…U„ O¬USO¯ OUˆ USUUˆO² O¨O´USO¡ U…O§.
Verbs and expressions with prepositions
I was filled with horror when I read the newspaper report of the explosion.
When she spilt juice on her new skirt the little girl burst into tears, [suddenly started crying].
O§U„OUO¹O§U„ UˆO§U„OaO¹O¨USO±O§Oa U…O¹ O§U„O¸O±UˆU
U…U„O¦Oa O¨O§U„O±O¹O¨ O¹U†O¯U…O§ U‚O±OOa OaU‚O±USO± O§U„OµO­USUO© O¹U† O§U„O§U†UO¬O§O±.
O¹U†O¯U…O§ O§U†O³UƒO¨ O§U„O¹OµUSO± O¹U„U‰ OaU†UˆO±OaU‡O§ O§U„O¬O¯USO¯O© O§U†U‡U…O±Oa O¯U…UˆO¹ O§U„O·UU„O©OOE ] O¨O¯OOa O§U„O¨UƒO§O¡ UO¬OO© [ .
Verbs and adverbs
Some verbs have particular adverbs which regularly collocate with them.
She pulled steadily on the rope and helped him to safety, [pulled firmly and evenly]
He placed the beautiful vase gently on the window shelf.
‘I love you and want to marry you,’ Derek whispered softly to Marsha.
She smiled proudly as she looked at the photos of her new grandson.
O§U„OUO¹O§U„ Uˆ O§U„OO­UˆO§U„
O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OUO¹O§U„ U„U‡O§ OO­UˆO§U„ O®O§OµO© OaO¬OaU…O¹ U…O¹U‡O§ O¨O´UƒU„ U…U†OaO¸U….
O³O­O¨Oa O§U„O­O¨U„ O¨O«O¨O§Oa Uˆ O³O§O¹O¯OaU‡ O¥U„U‰ O¨O± O§U„OU…O§U†OOE ] O³O­O¨Oa O¨O­O²U… UˆO¨O´UƒU„ U…OaO³O§Uˆ [
UˆO¶O¹ O§U„U…O²U‡O±USO© O§U„O¬U…USU„O© O¨U„O·U O¹U„U‰ O±U O§U„U†O§UO°O©.
O¯USO±USUƒ U‡U…O³ O¨U‡O¯UˆO¡ O¥U„U‰ U…O§O±O´O§OOE ‘OU†O§ OO­O¨Uƒ Uˆ OO±USO¯ OU† OOaO²UˆO¬Uƒ ‘ .
O§O¨OaO³U…Oa O¨UO®O± UˆU‡US OaU†O¸O± O¥U„U‰ OµUˆO± O­UUSO¯U‡O§ O§U„O¬O¯USO¯.
Adverbs and adjectives
They are happily married.
I am fully aware that there are serious problems. [I know well]
Harry was blissfully unaware that he was in danger. [Harry had no idea at all, often used about something unpleasant] O§U„O§O­UˆO§U„ Uˆ O§U„OµUO§Oa
U‡U…O§ U…OaO²UˆO¬O§U† UˆO¨O³O¹O§O¯O©.
UˆOU†O§ OO¯O±Uƒ OaU…O§U… O§ OU† U‡U†O§Uƒ U…O´O§UƒU„ O®O·USO±O©. ]OU†O§ OO¹U„U… O¬USO¯ O§U‹[
UƒO§U† U‡O§O±US O¨U…U†OaU‡U‰ O§U„O³O¹O§O¯O© UˆUSO¬U‡U„ O§U†U‡ UUS O®O·O±. ]U„U… USUƒU† U„O¯U‰ U‡O§O±US OUS UUƒO±O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¥O·U„O§U‚OOE OoO§U„O¨ O§U‹ U…O§ OaO³OaO®O¯U… O¹U† O´USO¡ OoUSO±
O³O§O±[
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 26
Synonyms and confusable words
Words meaning “old ”
I met an old friend the other day. It’s a very old building.
She studied ancient history. In ancient times, life was very hard.
This shop sells antique furniture. She collects antique jewelry, [old and valuable]
I helped an elderly person who was trying to cross the road, [elderly is more polite than old]
O§U„U…O±O§O¯UO§Oa UˆO§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„U…O­USU‘O±O©
UƒU„U…O§Oa OaO¹U†U‰ ” U‚O¯USU…”
O§U„OaU‚USOa O¨OµO¯USU‚ U‚O¯USU… UUS O°U„Uƒ O§U„USUˆU…. O§U†U‡ U…O¨U†U‰ U‚O¯USU… O¬O¯ O§U‹.
O¯O±O³Oa O§U„OaO§O±USO® O§U„U‚O¯USU…. UUS O§U„O¹OµUˆO± O§U„U‚O¯USU…O©OOE UƒO§U†Oa O§U„O­USO§O© OµO¹O¨O© U„U„OoO§USO©.
U‡O°O§ O§U„U…O­U„ USO¨USO¹ O§U„OO«O§O« O§U„O¹OaUSU‚. O§U†U‡O§ OaO¬U…O¹ O§U„U…O¬UˆU‡O±O§Oa O§U„O¹OaUSU‚O©OOE ]O§U„U‚O¯USU…O© Uˆ U‚USU…O©[
U„U‚O¯ O³O§O¹O¯Oa O´O®Oµ U…O³U† UƒO§U† USO­O§UˆU„ O¹O¨UˆO± O§U„O·O±USU‚OOE ]U…O³U† U‡Uˆ OUƒO«O± OaU‡O°USO¨O§ O¹O¬UˆO²[
Other synonym pairs synonyms
charge vs. load
injure vs. damage
grow vs. raise
I need to charge my phone. [used for electrical items]
They loaded the van/truck and drove away.
Three injured people were taken to hospital.
The shop tried to sell me a damaged sofa.
In the south the farmers grow crops.
In the north the farmers mostly raise cattle.
O§U‚OaO±O§U† U…O±O§O¯U O¨U…O±O§O¯UO§Oa OO®O±U‰
O´O­U† U…U‚O§O¨U„ OaO­U…USU„
O¬O±O­ U…U‚O§O¨U„ OaO§U„U
USO²O±O¹ U…U‚O§O¨U„ USO±O¹U‰
OU†O§ O¨O­O§O¬O© O¥O§U„U‰ O´O­U† U‡O§OaUUS. ]O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© UUS O§U„OO¯UˆO§Oa O§U„UƒU‡O±O¨O§O¦USO©[
O­U…U‘ U„UˆO§ O§U„UO§U† / O§U„O´O§O­U†O© UˆO§U‚OaO§O¯UˆU‡O§ O¨O¹USO¯ O§U‹.
U†U‚U„ O§U„O¬O±O­U‰ O§U„O«U„O§O«O© O§U„U‰ O§U„U…O³OaO´UU‰.
O­O§UˆU„ O§U„U…OaO¬O± O¨USO¹US OO±USUƒO© OaO§U„UO©.
UUS O§U„O¬U†UˆO¨ USO²O±O¹ O§U„U…O²O§O±O¹UˆU† O§U„U…O­O§OµUSU„.
UUS O§U„O´U…O§U„ USO±O¹U‰ O§U„U…O²O§O±O¹UˆU† O§U„U…O§O´USO©.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 27
Lecture 9
Presupposition O§U„O¥UOaO±O§O¶
Presupposition
When we use a referring expression like this, he or Shakespeare, we usually assume that our listeners can recognize which referent is intended. In a more general way, we design our linguistic messages on the basis of large-scale assumptions about what our listeners already know. Some of these assumptions may be mistaken, of course, but mostly theyaE™re appropriate.
What a speaker assumes is true or known by a listener can be described as a presupposition.
O§U„O§UOaO±O§O¶
O¹U†O¯U…O§ U†O³OaO®O¯U… OaO¹O¨USO±O§ U…O±O¬O¹US O§ U…O«U„ U‡O°O§OOE U‡Uˆ OUˆ O´UƒO³O¨USO±OOE UO¥U†U†O§ U†UOaO±O¶ O¹O§O¯O© OU† U…O³OaU…O¹USU†O§ USU…UƒU†U‡U… O§U„OaO¹O±U O¹U„U‰ U…O§ U‡Uˆ U…U‚OµUˆO¯.
O¨O·O±USU‚O© O¹O§U…USO© OUƒO«O±OOE U†O­U† U†O®O· O§U„O±O³O§O¦U„ O§U„U„OoUˆUSO© U„O¯USU†O§ O¹U„U‰ OO³O§O³ O¥UOaO±O§O¶O§Oa O¹U„U‰ U†O·O§U‚ UˆO§O³O¹ O­UˆU„ U…O§ USO¹O±UU‡ U…O³OaU…O¹USU†O§ O¨O§U„UO¹U„.
O¨O¹O¶ U‡O°U‡ O§U„O¥UOaO±O§O¶O§Oa USU…UƒU† OU† OaUU‡U… O¨O´UƒU„ O®O§O·O¦ O¨O·O¨USO¹O© O§U„O­O§U„OOE UˆU„UƒU† UUS O§U„OoO§U„O¨ OaUƒUˆU† U…U†O§O³O¨O©.
U…O§ USUOaO±O¶U‡ O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« OµO­USO­ OUˆ U…O¹O±UˆU U…U† U‚O¨U„ O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ USU…UƒU† UˆOµUU‡ O¨OU†U‡ O¥UOaO±O§O¶.
If someone tells you Your brother is waiting outside, there is an obvious presupposition that you have a brother.
If you are asked Why did you arrive late?, there is a presupposition that you did arrive late.
And if you are asked the question When did you stop smoking?, there are at least two presuppositions involved. In asking this question, the speaker presupposes that you used to smoke and that you no longer do so.
O§O°O§ U‚O§U„ U„Uƒ O´O®Oµ OO®UˆUƒ USU†OaO¸O± UUS O§U„O®O§O±O¬OOE U‡U†O§Uƒ O¥UOaO±O§O¶ UˆO§O¶O­ OU† U„O¯USUƒ OO®.
O¥O°O§ O³UO¦U„Oa U„U…O§O°O§ UˆOµU„Oa U…OaOO®O± O§OYOOE U‡U†O§Uƒ O§UOaO±O§O¶ OU†Uƒ UˆOµU„Oa UUS UˆU‚Oa U…OaOO®O±.
UˆO¥O°O§ O³UO¦U„Oa U…OaU‰ OaUˆU‚UOa O¹U† O§U„OaO¯O®USU†OYOOE U‡U†O§Uƒ O¹U„U‰ O§U„OU‚U„ O§UOaO±O§O¶USU† U…O¹U†USUSU†. UUS U‡O°O§ O§U„O³O¤O§U„OOE USUOaO±O¶ O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« O§U„O°US OU†Uƒ UƒU†Oa
OaO¯O®U† Uˆ U„U… OaO¹O¯ OaUO¹U„ O°U„Uƒ.
Questions like this, with built-in presuppositions, are very useful devices for trial lawyers. If the defendant is asked by the district attorney, Okay, Mr. Buckingham, how fast were you going when you ran the red light?, there is a presupposition that Mr. Buckingham did in fact run the red light. If he simply answers the How fast part of the question, by giving a speed, he is behaving as if the presupposition is correct.
OO³O¦U„O© U…U† U‡O°O§ O§U„U‚O¨USU„OOE U…O¹ UˆO¬UˆO¯ O¥UOaO±O§O¶O§Oa O¶U…U†U‡O§OOE U‡US UˆO³O§O¦U„ U…UUSO¯O© O¬O¯ O§U‹ U„U„U…O­O§U…USU† UUS O§U„U…O­O§UƒU…O©. UˆO¥O°O§ O³UO¦U„ O§U„U…OaU‡U… U…U† U‚O¨U„
O§U„U…O¯O¹US O§U„O¹O§U…OOE O­O³U† O§U‹OOE O³USO¯ O¨O§UƒU†OoU‡O§U…OOE U…O§ U…O¯U‰ O³O±O¹OaUƒ O¹U†O¯U…O§ U‚O·O¹Oa O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„O­U…O±O§O¡OYOOE U‡U†O§Uƒ O§UOaO±O§O¶ OU† O§U„O³USO¯ O¨O§UƒU†OoU‡O§U… UUS
O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹ U‚O·O¹ O§U„O¥O´O§O±O© O§U„O­U…O±O§O¡. O¥O°O§ OO¬O§O¨ O¨O¨O³O§O·O© O¹U† O¬O²O¦USO© U…O¯U‰ O³O±O¹OaUƒOOE U…U† O®U„O§U„ O¥O¹O·O§O¡ O³O±O¹O©OOE UO¥U†U‡ USOaOµO±U UƒU…O§ U„Uˆ UƒO§U†
O§U„O§UOaO±O§O¶ OµO­USO­.
One of the TESTS used to check for the presuppositions underlying sentences involves negating a sentence with a particular presupposition and checking if the presupposition remains true.
Whether you say My car is a wreck or the negative version My car is not a wreck, the underlying presupposition (I have a car) remains true despite the fact that the two sentences have opposite meanings.
This is called the constancy under negationaE test for identifying a presupposition.
O¥O­O¯U‰ O§U„O¥O®OaO¨O§O±O§Oa O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© U„U„OaO­U‚U‚ U…U† O§U„O¬U…U„ O§U„O§UOaO±O§O¶O§Oa O§U„UƒO§U…U†O© USO¹U†US U†UUS O§U„O¬U…U„O© U…O¹ O§UOaO±O§O¶ U…O¹USU† UˆO§U„OaO­U‚U‚ O¥O°O§ O¨U‚US
O§U„O¥UOaO±O§O¶ OµO­USO­ O§U‹. O³UˆO§O¡ UƒU†Oa OaU‚UˆU„ O³USO§O±OaUS O­O·O§U… OUˆ O§U„U†O³O®O© O§U„O³U„O¨USO© O³USO§O±OaUS U„USO³Oa O­O·O§U…OOE UˆO§U„O¥UOaO±O§O¶ O§U„OO³O§O³US )U„O¯US
O³USO§O±O©( USO¨U‚U‰ OµO­USO­ O§ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† O§U„O¬U…U„OaUSU† U„U‡O§ U…O¹U†U‰ U…O¹O§UƒO³.
UˆU‡O°O§ USO³U…U‰ “O§U„O«O¨O§Oa OaO­Oa O§U„U†UUS” O§O®OaO¨O§O± U„OaO­O¯USO¯ O§U„O§UOaO±O§O¶.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 28
If someone says, I used to regret marrying him, but I donaE™t regret marrying him now, the presupposition (I married him) remains constant even though the verb regret changes from affirmative to negative.
O§O°O§ UƒO§U† O´O®Oµ USU‚UˆU„OOE UƒU†Oa U†O§O¯U… O§ O¹U„U‰ O²UˆO§O¬US U…U†U‡OOE UˆU„UƒU†U†US U„O³Oa U†O§O¯U…O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O²UˆO§O¬ U…U†U‡ O§U„O¢U†OOE O§U„O¥UOaO±O§O¶ )OaO²UˆO¬OaU‡( U„O§ OaO²O§U„
O«O§O¨OaO© O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† O§U„UO¹U„ U†O¯U… OaOoUSO± U…U† O§U„O¥USO¬O§O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O³U„O¨USO©.
O§U„OaU…O§O±USU† U…O¹ O§U„O­U„
What is one obvious presupposition of a speaker who says: (a) Your clock isnaE™t working. That you have a clock.
(b) Where did he find the money? That the money is with you. (c) We regret buying that car. That you bought the car. (d) The king of France is bald. That he is the King of France.
The following sentences make certain presuppositions. What are they? (a) The police ordered the minors to stop smoking. That the minors were smoking. (b) That her pet turtle ran away made Emily very sad. That she had a pet turtle. (c) Even Fred passed. That fred also took the exam. (d) Lisa wants more popcorn. That Lisa already has some popcorn. (e) Jill went into a nearby house. That Jill is inside the house.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 29
Lecture 10
Speech Acts OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U…
There are different kinds of context: U‡U†O§Uƒ OU†UˆO§O¹ U…O®OaU„UO© U…U† O§U„O³USO§U‚:
1. Linguistic context (i.e., co-text). The linguistic context of a word is the set of other words used in the same phrase or sentence. The surrounding co-text has a strong effect on what we think the word probably means. E.g., bank as a homonym, a single form with more than one meaning.
Q. How do we know which meaning is intended?
A. Via linguistic context.
.5 O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U„OoUˆUS )OUSOOE O´O§O±Uƒ UUS O§U„U†Oµ( O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U„OoUˆUS U„U„UƒU„U…O© U‡Uˆ U…O¬U…UˆO¹O© U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OO®O±U‰ O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© UUS U†UO³
O§U„O¹O¨O§O±O© OUˆ O§U„O¬U…U„O©. O§U„U…O­USO· O§U„U…O´O§O±Uƒ UUS O§U„U†Oµ U„U‡ OaOO«USO± U‚UˆUS O¹U„U‰ U…O§ U†UUƒO± O¨U‡ O¨OU† U…O§O°O§ OaO¹U†US O§U„UƒU„U…O© O¹U„U‰ O§U„OO±O¬O­. O¹U„U‰
O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE bank O¨O§O¹OaO¨O§O±U‡ U…O¬O§U†O³O©OOE O´UƒU„ UˆO§O­O¯ U…O¹ OUƒO«O± U…U† U…O¹U†U‰ UˆO§O­O¯.
O§U„O³O¤O§U„ : UƒUSU U†O¹O±U U…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯OY
O§U„O¬UˆO§O¨: U…U† O®U„O§U„ O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U„OoUˆUS.
If the word bank is used in a sentence with words like steep or overgrown?
If we hear someone say that she has to get to the bank to withdraw some cash?
We know from this linguistic context which type of bank is intended.
O¥O°O§ OaU… O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… UƒU„U…O© bank UUS O¬U…U„O© U…O¹ UƒU„U…O§Oa U…O«U„ O­O§O¯ OUˆ U…OaO¶O®U…O© OY
O¥O°O§ U†O³U…O¹U†O§ OO­O¯U‡U… OaU‚UˆU„ OU†U‡ USO¬O¨ OU† OaOµU„ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O¨U†Uƒ U„O³O­O¨ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„U†U‚UˆO¯OY
U†O­U† U†O¹O±U U…U† U‡O°O§ O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U„OoUˆUS OUS U†UˆO¹ U…U† bank USU‚OµO¯.
2. We also know how to interpret words on the basis of physical context. If we see the word BANK on the wall of a building in a city? The relevant context is our mental representation of those aspects.
.2 U†O­U† U†O¹O±U OUSO¶ O§U‹ UƒUSUUSO© OaUO³USO± O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O¹U„U‰ OO³O§O³ O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„U…O§O¯US. O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† U„U†O§ OU† U†O±U‰ BANK UƒU„U…O© O¹U„U‰ O¬O¯O§O±
U…O¨U†U‰ UUS U…O¯USU†O© U…O§OY UUS O³USO§U‚ O°Uˆ OµU„O© U‡Uˆ O§U„OaU…O«USU„ O§U„O¹U‚U„US U„O¯USU†O§ U…U† OaU„Uƒ O§U„O¬UˆO§U†O¨.
Speech acts
There are ways in which we interpret the meaning of an utterance in terms of what the speaker intended to conveyaE¦ to interpret the function ofaE what is said?
In general, we recognize the type of actionaE performed by a speaker with the utterance, such as requesting,aE commanding,aE questioningaE or informing.aE
We can define a speech act as the action performed by a speaker with an utterance.
E.g., IaE™ll be there at six = promising
OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U…
U‡U†O§Uƒ O§U„O·O±U‚ O§U„OaUS U†UO³O± O¨U‡O§ U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„UƒU„O§U… U…U† O­USO« U…O§ USU†UˆUS O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… U†U‚U„U‡ U„U†O§ … U„ U “UˆO¸USUO© O§U„OaUO³USO±” U„U…O§ USU‚O§U„OY
O¨O´UƒU„ O¹O§U…OOE UO¥U†U†O§ U†O¯O±Uƒ U†UˆO¹ “O§U„UO¹U„” O§U„O°USUS USU‚UˆU… O¨U‡ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… U…O¹ O§U„UƒU„O§U…OOE U…O«U„ “O·U„O¨”OOE “OU…O±”OOE “O§O³OaO¬UˆO§O¨” OUˆ”O§O¹U„O§U…”.
USU…UƒU† OU† U†O­O¯O¯ UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… UƒO¹U…U„ USU‚UˆU… O¨U‡ OO­O¯ O§U„U…OaO­O¯O«USU† U…O¹ O§U„UƒU„O§U… .
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„ OOE O³OUƒUˆU† U‡U†O§Uƒ UUS O§U„O³O§O¯O³O© = UˆO§O¹O¯
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 30
Direct vs. Indirect speech acts
We usually use certain syntactic structures. OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±U…U‚O§O¨U„ OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„OoUSO± U…O¨O§O´O±
U†O­U† O¹O§O¯O© U†O³OaO®O¯U… O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OaO±O§UƒUSO¨ O§U„U†O­UˆUSO©.
Structure O§U„OaO±UƒUSO¨
Function O§U„UˆO¸USUO©
Did you eat the pizza? U‡U„ OUƒU„Oa O§U„O¨USOaO²O§OY
Interrogative OµUSOoO© O§U„O§O³OaUU‡O§U…
Question O³O¤O§U„
Eat the pizza! UƒUU„ O§U„O¨USOaO²O§!
Imperative OµUSOoO© O§U„OU…O±
Command OU…O±
You ate the pizza. OUƒU„Oa O§U„O¨USOaO²O§.
Declarative OµUSOoO© O§U„OaOµO±USO­
Statement OaOµO±USO­
When an interrogative structure is used with the function of a question, it is described as a direct speech act.
When we donaE™t know something and we ask someone for the information. Can you ride a bicycle?
O¹U†O¯ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… OµUSOoO© O§U„O§O³OaUU‡O§U… U…O¹ UˆO¸USUO© O§U„O³O¤O§U„ OOE USUˆOµU O¨OU†U‡ UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±.
O¹U†O¯U…O§ U„O§ U†O¹O±U O´USO¦ O§U‹ UˆU†O³OU„ O´O®Oµ O¹U† O§U„U…O¹U„UˆU…O§Oa. OUSU…UƒU†Uƒ O±UƒUˆO¨ O¯O±O§O¬O©OY
Compare that utterance with Can you pass the salt? Here, we are not asking a question about someoneaE™s ability; we donaE™t use this structure as a question at all. We use it to make a request.
U‚O§O±U† O°U„Uƒ U…O¹ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OUSU…UƒU†Uƒ OaU…O±USO± O§U„U…U„O­OY U‡U†O§OOE U†O­U† U„O§ U†O³OU„ O³O¤O§U„O§ O­UˆU„ U‚O¯O±O© O´O®Oµ U…O§. U†O­U† U„O§ U†O³OaO®O¯U… U‡O°O§ O§U„OaO±UƒUSO¨ UƒO³O¤O§U„
O¹U„U‰ O§U„O¥O·U„O§U‚. U†O³OaO®O¯U…U‡O§ U„OaU‚O¯USU… O·U„O¨.
That is, we are using a syntactic structure associated with the function of a question, but in this case with the function of a request. This is an example of an indirect speech act. Whenever one of the structures is used to perform a function other than the one listed before, the result is an indirect speech act.
O°U„Uƒ O¨O¹USO¯ O§U‹ O¹U† O§U„O³O¤O§U„OOE U†O­U† U†O³OaO®O¯U… OaO±UƒUSO¨O© U†O­UˆUSO© U…O±OaO¨O·O© U…O¹ UˆO¸USUO© O§U„O³O¤O§U„OOE UˆU„UƒU† UUS U‡O°U‡ O§U„O­O§U„O© U…O¹ UˆO¸USUO© O§U„O·U„O¨. UˆU‡O°O§
U…O«O§U„ O¹U„U‰ UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±. UƒU„U…O§ O§O³OaO®O¯U… OO­O¯ O§U„OaO±O§UƒUSO¨ U„OO¯O§O¡ UˆO¸USUO© OO®O±U‰ OoUSO± OaU„Uƒ O§U„U…O°UƒUˆO±O© U‚O¨U„OOE OaUƒUˆU† O§U„U†OaUSO¬O© U‡US
UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±.
The utterance You left the door open has a declarative structure (statement = direct speech act)
O§U„UƒU„O§U… OaO±Uƒ Oa O§U„O¨O§O¨ U…UOaUˆO­ O§ U„O¯USU‡O§ OaO±UƒUSO¨O© OaOµO±USO­USO© )O§U„OaOµO±USO­ = UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±(
However, if you say this to someone who has just come in and itaE™s really hot outside, you would want that person to close the door. You are not using the imperative structure. You are using a declarative structure to make a request.
ItaE™s another example of an indirect speech act.
U…O¹ O°U„UƒOOE O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa OaU‚UˆU„ U„O´O®Oµ U…O§ U‚O¯ O¯O®U„ U„U„OaUˆOOE O­U‚ O§U‹ O§U„O¬Uˆ O­O§O± UUS O§U„O®O§O±O¬OOE OU†Oa OaO±USO¯ U…U† U‡O°O§ O§U„O´O®Oµ OU† USOoU„U‚ O§U„O¨O§O¨. OU†Oa U„O§
OaO³OaO®O¯U… OµUSOoO© O§U„OU…O±. OU†Oa OaO³OaO®O¯U… O§U„OµUSOoO© O§U„OaOµO±USO­USO© U„OaU‚O¯USU… O·U„O¨.
O§U†U‡O§ U…O«O§U„ O¢O®O± O¹U„U‰ UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±.
It is possible to have strange effects if one person fails to recognize another personaE™s indirect speech act.
U…U† O§U„U…U…UƒU† OU† USUƒUˆU† U„U‡O§ O¢O«O§O± OoO±USO¨O© O¥O°O§ UO´U„ O´O®Oµ UˆO§O­O¯ UUS O§U„OaO¹O±U O¹U„U‰ UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O± U„O´O®Oµ O¢O®O±.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 31
A visitor, carrying his luggage, looking lost, stops someone
O²O§O¦O±OOE UˆUSO­U…U„ OU…OaO¹OaU‡OOE USO¯Uˆ UˆUƒOU†U‡ O¶O§U„ O·O±USU‚U‡OOE USUˆU‚U O´O®Oµ U…O§
VISITOR: O§U„O²O§O¦O±
Excuse me. Do you know where the Al-Bilad Hotel is? U„Uˆ O³U…O­Oa. U‡U„ OaO¹O±U OUSU† UU†O¯U‚ O§U„O¨U„O§O¯OY
PASSER-BY: O§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O¹O§O¨O± O¨O¬O§U†O¨U‡
Oh sure, I know where it is. (and walks away) OUˆU‡ O¨O§U„OaOUƒUSO¯OOE UˆOU†O§ OO¹O±U OUSU† U‡Uˆ. )UˆUSUƒU…U„ U…O´USU‡ O°O§U‡O¨ O§U‹(
Here, the visitor uses (Do you knowaE¦?) a form normally associated with a question, and the passer-by answers that question literally (I knowaE¦ ).
direct speech act vs. indirect speech act requestaE
U‡U†O§OOE USO³OaO®O¯U… O§U„O²O§O¦O± )U‡U„ OaO¹O±U …OY( OµUSOoO© OaO±OaO¨O· O¹O§O¯O© U…O¹ O§U„O³O¤O§U„OOE UˆO§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O¹O§O¨O± O¨O¬O§U†O¨U‡ USO¬USO¨ O¹U„U‰ O§U„O³O¤O§U„ O­O±UUSO§U‹ )UˆOU†O§
OO¹U„U… …(.
OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±U…U‚O§O¨U„ OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„OoUSO± U…O¨O§O´O± “O·U„O¨”
Speech Act Theory (Book: How to Do Things with Words)
The word acts entails doing actions. Within a specific context, Austin (1962) states that to say something is to do somethingaE.
E.g., If a minster declares two people husband and wife, they are now legally together in a way that they were not before that utterance.
Therefore, when someone says IaE™m sorryaE, it is not only to state the fact that he or she feels sorry but also to carry out the speech act of apologizing.
U†O¸O±USO© UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… )UƒOaO§O¨: UƒUSU OU† OaUO¹U„ OO´USO§O¡ U…O¹ UƒU„U…O§Oa(
O§U„UƒU„U…O© OaUO¹U„ U…O§ OaO³OaU„O²U… O¨U‡ O§U„OUO¹O§U„. UUS O³USO§U‚ U…O¹USU†OOE OUˆO³OaU† ) 5991 ( OaU†Oµ O¹U„U‰ OU† “OU† OaU‚UˆU„ O´USO¦ O§ U‡Uˆ OU† OaUO¹U„ O´USO¦ O§ “.
U…O«U„O§ OOE O¥O°O§ OµO±O­ UˆO²USO± O¨OU† O´O®OµUSU† O²UˆO¬ UˆO²UˆO¬O©OOE U‡U… O§U„O¢U† U…O¹ O§U‹ O¨O´UƒU„ U‚O§U†UˆU†USOOE O¨OO³U„UˆO¨ OU†U‡U… U„U… USUƒUˆU†O§ U…O¹ O§U‹ U‚O¨U„ O°U„Uƒ O§U„UƒU„O§U….
U„O°U„UƒOOE O¹U†O¯U…O§ USU‚UˆU„ O´O®Oµ U…O§ “OU†O§ O¢O³U”OOE U„USO³ UU‚O· U„OaOµO±USO­ O§U„O­U‚USU‚O© OU†U‡ OUˆ OU†U‡O§ OaO´O¹O± O¨O§U„OO³U UˆU„UƒU† OUSO¶ O§U‹ U„OaU†UUSO° UO¹U„ UƒU„O§U…
O§U„O§O¹OaO°O§O±.
Austin distinguishes three different acts/forces in any given speech act.
Do you have a watch?aE
1. The locutionary force: what is actually said; the production of the words that make up the utterance.
2. The illocutionary force: the intended meaning of the utterance (asking for the time)
3. The perlocutionary force: the effect achieved by the utterance on the hearer. (The action created; the listener looking at the watch and tell the time)
OUˆO³OaU† USU…USO² O«U„O§O«O© OUO¹O§U„ U…O®OaU„UO© / O§U„U‚UˆO© UUS OUS UO¹U„ UƒU„O§U… U…O¹O·U‰.
“U‡U„ U„O¯USUƒ O³O§O¹O© OY”
.1 U‚UˆO© OO³U„UˆO¨ O§U„UƒU„O§U…: U…O§ USU‚O§U„ O¨O§U„UO¹U„. O¥U†OaO§O¬ O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS OaO´UƒU„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… .
.2 U‚UˆO© O§U„U‚OµO¯ O¨O§U„UƒU„O§U…: O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯ U…U† O§U„UƒU„O§U… )O§U„O³O¤O§U„ O¹U† O§U„UˆU‚Oa(
.3 U‚UˆO© OaOO«USO± O§U„UƒU„O§U…: O§U„OaOO«USO± O§U„U…OaO­U‚U‚ U…U† O®U„O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O¹U„U‰ O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹. )O§U„UO¹U„ O§U„U…UˆU„O¯ O› O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ USU†O¸O± U„U„O³O§O¹O© UˆUSO®O¨O±
O¨O§U„UˆU‚Oa(
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 32
To interpret the intended meaning, the hearer needs to consider the social context. Failing to do that may lead the hearer to take out his watch and show it to the speaker possibly wondering why the speaker would want to see his or her watch.
U„OaUO³USO± O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯OOE USO­OaO§O¬ O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ U„U„OO®O° O¨O¹USU† O§U„O¥O¹OaO¨O§O± O§U„O³USO§U‚ O§U„O§O¬OaU…O§O¹US. O§U„UO´U„ UUS O§U„U‚USO§U… O¨O°U„Uƒ U‚O¯ USO¤O¯US O¨O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ OU„U‰
O¥O®O±O§O¬ O³O§O¹OaU‡ UˆUSO±USU‡O§ U„U„U…OaUƒU„U… UˆO±O¨U…O§ USOaO³O§O¡U„ O§U„U…O³OaU…O¹ UUS U†UO³U‡ U„U…O§O°O§ USO±USO¯ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U… OU† USO±U‰ O³O§O¹OaU‡ OUˆ O³O§O¹OaU‡O§.
The main reason we use indirect speech acts seems to be that actions such as requests, presented in an indirect way (Could you open that door for me?), are generally considered to be more gentle or more polite in our society than direct speech acts (Open that door for me!).
O§U„O³O¨O¨ O§U„O±O¦USO³US U„O§O³OaO®O¯O§U…U†O§ OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±O© U‡Uˆ OU† O¥O¬O±O§O¡O§Oa U…O«U„ O§U„O·U„O¨O§Oa O§U„OaUS OaU‚O¯U… O¨O·O±USU‚O© OoUSO± U…O¨O§O´O±O© )U‡U„
USU…UƒU†Uƒ UOaO­ O°U„Uƒ O§U„O¨O§O¨ U„USOY(OOE OaO¹OaO¨O± O¹U…UˆU… O§U‹ OUƒO«O± U„O·U O§U‹ OUˆ OUƒO«O± OaU‡O°USO¨ O§U‹ UUS U…O¬OaU…O¹U†O§ U…U† OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±O© )O§UOaO­ U‡O°O§ O§U„O¨O§O¨
U„US!(.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 33
Lecture 11
Politeness O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨
Politeness
We can think of politeness in general terms as having to do with ideas like being tactful, modest, and nice to other people. In the study of linguistic politeness, the most relevant concept is face.aE
Your face, in pragmatics, is your public self-image. This is the emotional and social sense of self that everyone has and expects everyone else to recognize.
Politeness can be defined as showing awareness and consideration of another personaE™s face.
O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨
USU…UƒU† OU† U†UUƒO± UUS O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ O¨OµUO© O¹O§U…O© OU†U‡ U…O±OaO¨O· O¨O§U„OUUƒO§O± U…O«U„ OU† USUƒUˆU† U„O¨U‚ O§ OOE U…OaUˆO§O¶O¹ O§ OOE UˆU„O·USU U…O¹ O§U„O¢O®O±USU†. UUS O¯O±O§O³O©
O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ O§U„U„OoUˆUSOOE O§U„U…UU‡UˆU… O§U„OUƒO«O± OU‡U…USO© U‡Uˆ “O§U„UˆO¬U‡”.
UˆO¬U‡UƒOOE UUS O§U„O¨O±O§OoU…O§OaUSUƒOOE U‡US OµUˆO±OaUƒ O§U„O°O§OaUSO© O§U„O¹O§U…O©. U‡O°O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„O´O¹UˆO± O§U„O¹O§O·UUS UˆO§U„O§O¬OaU…O§O¹US O§U„O°US USUˆO¬O¯ U„O¯U‰ UƒU„ O´O®OµOOE
UˆUSOaUˆU‚O¹ U…U† O§U„O¬U…USO¹ OU† USU„O§O­O¸U‡.
O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ USU…UƒU† OaO¹O±USUU‡ O¨O¥O¸U‡O§O± O§U„O§U†OaO¨O§U‡ Uˆ OaO¯U‚USU‚ O§U„U†O¸O± UUS UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O¢O®O±.
If you say something that represents a threat to another personaE™s self-image, that is called a face-threatening act.
For example, if you use a direct speech act to get someone to do something (Give me that file!), you are behaving as if you have more social power than the other person. If you donaE™t actually have that social power (e.g. youaE™re not a military officer or prison warden), then you are performing a face-threatening act.
O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa OaU‚UˆU„ O´USO¦ O§U‹ USU…O«U„ OaU‡O¯USO¯ O§U‹ U„U„OµUˆO±O© O§U„O°O§OaUSO© U„O´O®Oµ O¢O®O±OOE USO³U…U‰ UO¹U„ O§U„OaU‡O¯USO¯ O¨O§U„UˆO¬U‡.
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa OaO³OaO®O¯U… UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O± U„O¬O¹U„ O´O®Oµ U…O§ USUO¹U„ O´USO¦ O§U‹ )OO¹O·U†US O°U„Uƒ O§U„U…U„U!(OOE OU†Oa OaOaOµO±U UƒU…O§ U„Uˆ
UƒO§U† U„O¯USUƒ O³U„O·O© O§O¬OaU…O§O¹USO© OUƒO«O± U…U† O§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O¢O®O±. O¥O°O§ U„U… OaUƒU† U„O¯USUƒ UO¹U„O§ O§U„O³U„O·O© O§U„O§O¬OaU…O§O¹USO© )O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„O› U„U… OaUƒU† O¶O§O¨O·
O¹O³UƒO±US OUˆ U…O¯USO± O§U„O³O¬U†(OOE O¥O°O§U‹ OU†Oa OaU†UO° UO¹U„ O§U„OaU‡O¯USO¯ O¨O§U„UˆO¬U‡.
An indirect speech act, in the form associated with a question (Could you pass me that file?), removes the assumption of social power.
YouaE™re only asking if itaE™s possible. This makes your request less threatening to the other personaE™s face. Whenever you say something that lessens the possible threat to anotheraE™s face, it can be described as a face-saving act.
UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±OOE UUS O´UƒU„ U…O±OaO¨O· O¨O§U„O³O¤O§U„ )U‡U„ USU…UƒU†Uƒ OaU…O±USO± O°U„Uƒ O§U„U…U„U OY(OOE USO¨O¹O¯ O§UOaO±O§O¶ O§U„O³U„O·O© O§U„O§O¬OaU…O§O¹USO©.
OU†Oa OaO³OU„ UU‚O· O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† U…U…UƒU† O§U‹. UˆU‡O°O§ USO¬O¹U„ O·U„O¨Uƒ OU‚U„ OaU‡O¯USO¯ O§U‹ U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O´O®Oµ O§U„O¢O®O±. UƒU„U…O§ U‚U„Oa O´USO¦ O§U‹ USU‚U„U„ U…U† OaU‡O¯USO¯ U…O­OaU…U„ U„UˆO¬U‡
O´O®Oµ O¢O®O±OOE UO¥U†U‡ USU…UƒU† OU† USUˆOµU O¨OU†U‡ O¹U…U„ U„O­UO¸ U…O§O¡ O§U„UˆO¬U‡.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 34
Politeness is about respecting the face of others.
O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ U‡Uˆ O¹U† O§O­OaO±O§U… UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O¢O®O±USU†.
We have both a negative face and a positive face. (Note that negativeaE doesnaE™t mean badaE here) Negative face is the need to be independent and free from imposition. Positive face is the need to be connected, to belong, to be a member of the group.
So, a face-saving act that emphasizes a personaE™s negative face will show concern about imposition (IaE™m sorry to bother youaE¦; I know youaE™re busy, butaE¦). A face-saving act that emphasizes a personaE™s positive face will show solidarity and draw attention to a common goal (LetaE™s do this togetheraE¦; You and I have the same problem, soaE¦).
U„O¯USU†O§ O¹U„U‰ O­O¯ O³UˆO§O¡ UˆO¬U‡ O³U„O¨US UˆUˆO¬U‡ O¥USO¬O§O¨US. )U„O§O­O¸ OU† “O³U„O¨USO© ” U„O§ USO¹U†US “O³USO¦O©” U‡U†O§( O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O³U„O¨US U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O§O¬O© O¥U„U‰ OU† OaUƒUˆU†
U…O³OaU‚U„O§ UˆO®O§U„USO© U…U† UO±O¶. O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O¥USO¬O§O¨US U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O§O¬O© O¥U„U‰ OU† OaUƒUˆU† U…OaOµU„O§ OOE O¹U„U‰ OU† OaU†OaU…USOOE U„OaUƒUˆU† O¹O¶UˆO§ UUS O§U„U…O¬U…UˆO¹O©.
U„O°U„UƒOOE UO¹U„ O­UO¸ U…O§O¡ O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O°US USO±UƒO² O¹U„U‰ O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O³U„O¨US U„U„O´O®Oµ O³UˆU OaO¸U‡O± U‚U„U‚U‡O§ O¥O²O§O¡ O§U„UO±O¶ )OU†O§ O¢O³U U„O¥O²O¹O§O¬Uƒ …
UˆOU†O§ OO¹U„U… OU†Uƒ UƒU†Oa U…O´OoUˆU„O§ OOE UˆU„UƒU† …(. UO¹U„ O­UO¸ U…O§O¡ O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O°US USO±UƒO² O¹U„U‰ O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O¥USO¬O§O¨US O§U„O´O®Oµ O³UˆU OaO¸U‡O± O§U„OaO¶O§U…U†
UˆU„UOa O§U„O§U†OaO¨O§U‡ O¥U„U‰ U‡O¯U U…O´OaO±Uƒ )O¯O¹UˆU†O§ U†UO¹U„ O°U„Uƒ U…O¹ O§ …O› OU†Oa UˆOU†O§ U„O¯USU†O§ U†UO³ O§U„U…O´UƒU„O©OOE U„O°U„Uƒ …(.
Ideas about the appropriate language to mark politeness differ substantially from one culture to the next. If you have grown up in a culture that has directness as a valued way of showing solidarity, and you use direct speech acts (Give me that chair!) to people whose culture is more oriented to indirectness and avoiding direct imposition, then you will be considered impolite. You, in turn, may think of the others as vague and unsure of whether they really want something or are just asking about it (Are you using this chair?).
OUUƒO§O± O­UˆU„ O§U„U„OoO© O§U„U…U†O§O³O¨O© U„OaO­O¯USO¯ O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ OaO®OaU„U UƒO«USO± O§U‹ U…U† O«U‚O§UO© O¥U„U‰ OO®O±U‰. O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa U‚O¯ UƒO¨O±Oa UUS O«U‚O§UO© U„O¯USU‡O§ O§U„OµO±O§O­O© UƒUˆO³USU„O©
U‚USU…O© U„O¥O¸U‡O§O± O§U„OaO¶O§U…U†OOE UˆOaO³OaO®O¯U… OUO¹O§U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±O© )OO¹O·U†US U‡O°O§ O§U„UƒO±O³US!( U„U„U†O§O³ O°Uˆ O§U„O«U‚O§UO© OUƒO«O± OaUˆO¬U‡ O§U‹ O¥U„U‰ O§U„U…O±O§UˆOoU‡
UˆOaO¬U†O¨ O§U„UO±O¶ O§U„U…O¨O§O´O±OOE UO¥U†Uƒ O³UˆU OaO¹OaO¨O± OoUSO± U…U‡O°O¨.
OU†OaOOE O¨O¯UˆO±UƒOOE U‚O¯ OaUUƒO± UUS O§U„O¢O®O±USU† UƒOoO§U…O¶UˆU† UˆOoUSO± U…OaOUƒO¯ U…O§ O¥O°O§ UƒO§U†UˆO§ O­U‚ O§U‹ USO±USO¯UˆU† O´USO¦ O§U‹ OUˆ U…O¬O±O¯ USO³OU„UˆU† O¹U† O°U„Uƒ )U‡U„
OaO³OaO®O¯U… U‡O°O§ O§U„UƒO±O³US OY(.
aE¢giving compliments
aE¢using terms that indicate friendliness
aE¢thanking them
aE¢ O¥O¹O·O§O¡ U…O¬O§U…U„O§Oa
aE¢ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„U…OµO·U„O­O§Oa O§U„OaUS OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ O§U„UˆO¯
aE¢ O´UƒO±U‡U…
Positive politeness: is enhancing the positive face of others O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ O§U„O¥USO¬O§O¨US: U‡Uˆ OaO¹O²USO² O§U„UˆO¬U‡
O§U„O¥USO¬O§O¨US U„U„O¢O®O±USU†
aE¢Using markers of deference
aE¢Using indirect speech act to make orders or requests
aE¢apologizing
aE¢ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O¹U„O§U…O§Oa O§U„U…O±O§O¹O§O©
aE¢ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… UO¹U„ O§U„UƒU„O§U… OoUSO± O§U„U…O¨O§O´O± UUS O¥OµO¯O§O± OUˆO§U…O± OUˆ O·U„O¨O§Oa
aE¢ O§U„O§O¹OaO°O§O±
Negative politeness: is respecting the negative face of others O§U„OaU‡O°USO¨ O§U„O³U„O¨US: U‡Uˆ O§O­OaO±O§U… O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O³U„O¨US
U„U„O¢O®O±USU†
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 35
Imagine that you need to borrow your friendaE™s car.
This kind of request will impose the negative face of your friend.
If you are not interested in being polite, you may simply use a declarative sentence (I need to borrow your car) or imperative (Lend me your car). You can soften your imperative by adding (please).
OaO®USU„ OU†Uƒ O¨O­O§O¬O© O¥U„U‰ O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© O³USO§O±O© OµO¯USU‚Uƒ.
UˆU‡O°O§ O§U„U†UˆO¹ U…U† O§U„O·U„O¨ USUO±O¶ O§U„UˆO¬U‡ O§U„O³U„O¨US U„OµO¯USU‚Uƒ.
O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa U„O§ OaO±OoO¨ UUS OU† OaUƒUˆU† U…U‡O°O¨ O§U‹OOE USU…UƒU†Uƒ O¨O¨O³O§O·O© O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„O¬U…U„O© O§U„OaOµO±USO­USO© )OU†O§ O¨O­O§O¬O© U„O§O³OaO¹U„O±O© O³USO§O±OaUƒ( OUˆ O¬U…U„O©
OU…O±USO© )O§O¹O±U†US O³USO§O±OaUƒ(. USU…UƒU†Uƒ OaO®UUSU OµUSOoO© O§U„OU…O± O¹U† O·O±USU‚ O¥O¶O§UO© )U…U† UO¶U„Uƒ(.
More polite: You can employ an apology (IaE™m so sorry to imposeaE¦), an indirect request (I was wondering if I couldaE¦ or Would you mind if IaE¦), or another marker of deference (I know that this probably going to be a hassle for youaE¦).
OUƒO«O± OaU‡O°USO¨ O§ : USU…UƒU†Uƒ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„O§O¹OaO°O§O± )OU†O§ O¢O³U U„UO±O¶ …(OOE O·U„O¨ OoUSO± U…O¨O§O´O± )UƒU†Oa OOaO³O§O¡U„ O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† O¨O¥U…UƒO§U†US … OUˆ U‡U„ OaU…O§U†O¹
O¥O°O§ …(OOE OUˆ O¹U„O§U…O© OO®O±U‰ U…U† O§U„O§O­OaO±O§U… )OO¹U„U… OU† U‡O°O§ O±O¨U…O§ O³USUƒUˆU† U…OaO¹O¨ O¨O§U„U†O³O¨O© U„Uƒ … ( .
Understanding how successful communication works is actually a process of interpreting not just what speakers say, but what they intend to mean.aE
UU‡U… UƒUSUUSO© O¹U…U„ O§U„OaUˆO§OµU„ O§U„U†O§O¬O­ U‡Uˆ UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹ O¹U…U„USO© OaUO³USO± UˆU„USO³ UU‚O· U…O§ USU‚UˆU„U‡ O§U„U…OaUƒU„U…OOE UˆU„UƒU† U…O§ “USO±USO¯UˆU† U‚OµO¯U‡”.
Exercise:
1. Someone stands between you and the TV set youaE™re watching, so you decide to say one of the following. Identify which would be direct or indirect speech acts.
(a) Move!
(b) YouaE™re in the way.
(c) Could you please sit down?
(d) Please get out of the way.
2. In these examples, is the speaker appealing to positive or negative face?
(a) If youaE™re free, thereaE™s going to be a party at YuriaE™s place on Saturday.
(b) LetaE™s go to the party at YuriaE™s place on Saturday. EveryoneaE™s invited.
3. Make this sentence more polite:
Give me a double cappuccino, no whip.aE
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 36
Lecture 12
Metaphors & Idioms O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O§Oa Uˆ O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO©
Metaphor is a figure of speech in which a word (or a phrase) is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable.
Many people think of a metaphor as a device reserved for the use of authors poets, but in fact, metaphor is so embedded in our language that we do not notice most of it. It has a prominent place in our daily conversation. We use metaphor when speaking about even commonplace ideas like time. We treat time just like money, or other valuable materials.
O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© U‡US U…O¬O§O²USO© O¨O­USO« UƒU„U…O© )OUˆ O¹O¨O§O±O©( OaO·O¨U‚ O¹U„U‰ O´USO¡ OUˆ UO¹U„ O§U„OaUS O¨O­USO« OU†U‡O§ U„O§ OaU†O·O¨U‚ O­O±UUS O§ .
UƒO«USO± U…U† O§U„U†O§O³ USO¹OaU‚O¯UˆU† OU† O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© UƒO¬U‡O§O² U…U‚OaOµO±O© O¹U„U‰ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„UƒOaO§O¨ O§U„O´O¹O±O§O¡OOE UˆU„UƒU† UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹OOE O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© O¬O²O¡O§ U„O§
USOaO¬O²O U…U†U‡ UUS U„OoOaU†O§ O¨O­USO« U„O§ U†U„O§O­O¸ OUƒO«O±U‡O§. U„U‡O§ U…UƒO§U† O§U‹ O¨O§O±O² O§U‹ UUS O­O¯USO«U†O§ O§U„USUˆU…US. U†O­U† U†O³OaO®O¯U… O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© O¹U†O¯ O§U„O­O¯USO« O¹U† OUUƒO§O±
U…OU„UˆUO© U…O«U„ O§U„UˆU‚Oa. U†OaO¹O§U…U„ U…O¹ O§U„UˆU‚Oa OaU…O§U… O§U‹ U…O«U„ O§U„U…O§U„OOE OUˆ U…UˆO§O¯ OO®O±U‰ U‚USU…O©.
YouaE™re wasting my time.
This way will save you hours.
How do you spend time these days?
You need to budget your time.
I have invested a lot of time in this project.
HeaE™s living on borrowed time.
OU†Oa OaO¶ USO¹ UˆU‚OaUS.
O¨U‡O°U‡ O§U„O·O±USU‚O© O³UˆU OaUˆUO± U„Uƒ O³O§O¹O§Oa.
UƒUSU USU…UƒU†Uƒ OU† OaU‚O¶US O§U„UˆU‚Oa UUS U‡O°U‡ O§U„OUSO§U…OY
OaO­OaO§O¬ O¥U„U‰ UˆO¶O¹ U…USO²O§U†USO© U„UˆU‚OaUƒ.
U„U‚O¯ O§O³OaO«U…O±Oa O§U„UƒO«USO± U…U† O§U„UˆU‚Oa UUS U‡O°O§ O§U„U…O´O±UˆO¹.
USO¹USO´ UUS O§U„UˆU‚Oa O§U„U…O³OaO¹O§O±.
What is the basis for this metaphor? There is no similarity between time and money. What brings these concepts together is the perception that time is like a valuable commodity that can be gained or lost.
U…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„OO³O§O³ U„U‡O°U‡ O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O©OY U„O§ USUˆO¬O¯ OUS OaO´O§O¨U‡ O¨USU† O§U„UˆU‚Oa UˆO§U„U…O§U„. U…O§ USO¬U…O¹ U‡O°U‡ O§U„U…UO§U‡USU… U…O¹ O§U‹ U‡Uˆ O§U„O§O¹OaU‚O§O¯ O¨OU† O§U„UˆU‚Oa U‡Uˆ
U…O«U„ O³U„O¹O© U‚USU…O© USU…UƒU† UƒO³O¨U‡O§ OUˆ O®O³O§O±OaU‡O§.
Conceptual Metaphor (refers to the understanding of one idea in terms of another)
Examples from George Lakoff and Mark JohnsonaE™s book Metaphors We Live ByaE (5980)
O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© O§U„O®USO§U„USO© )USO´USO± O¥U„U‰ UU‡U… UUƒO±O© UˆO§O­O¯O© U…U† O­USO« O§U„O¢O®O±U‰(
) OU…O«U„O© U…U† O¬UˆO±O¬ U„O§UƒUˆU Uˆ UƒOaO§O¨ U…O§O±Uƒ O¬UˆU†O³UˆU† “O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O§Oa O§U„OaUS U†O¹USO´ U…U† O®U„O§U„U‡O§” ) 1895
1) ARGUMENT IS WAR. In everyday language, we say:
Your claims are indefensible.
He attacked every weak point in my argument.
His criticisms were right on target.
IaE™ve never won an argument with him.
He shot down all of my arguments.
)2 O§U„O­O¬O© U‡US O§U„O­O±O¨ . UUS O§U„U„OoO© O§U„USUˆU…USO©OOE U†O­U† U†U‚UˆU„:
U…O·O§U„O¨O§OaUƒ U„O§ USU…UƒU† O§U„O¯UO§O¹ O¹U†U‡O§ .
U‡O§O¬U… UƒU„ U†U‚O·O© O¶O¹U UUS O­O¬OaUS .
UƒO§U†Oa O§U†OaU‚O§O¯O§OaU‡ OaU…O§U… O§ O¹U„U‰ O§U„U‡O¯U.
U„U… USO³O¨U‚ U„US O§U† UO²Oa O¨O­O¬O© U…O¹U‡.
O§O³U‚O· UƒU„ O­O¬O¬US.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 37
2) TIME IS MONEY: we spend time or save it; we invest time, budget time, and sometimes run out of time; we can borrow time, or spare it.
You may not consciously think of ideas as plants.
)1 O§U„UˆU‚Oa U‡Uˆ O§U„U…O§U„: U†O­U† U†U‚O¶US O¹U„U‰ O§U„UˆU‚Oa OUˆ U†O­UO¸U‡. O¹U„USU†O§ OU† U†O³OaO«U…O± O§U„UˆU‚OaOOE U†O¶O¹ U…USO²O§U†USO© U„U„UˆU‚OaOOE UˆOO­USO§U† O§U‹ USU†UO°
O§U„UˆU‚OaO› U†O­U† USU…UƒU† OU† U†U‚OaO±O¶ O§U„UˆU‚OaOOE OUˆ OaO¬U†O¨U‡.
U„O§ OaO³OaO·USO¹ O§U„OaUUƒUSO± O¨O§U„OUUƒO§O± UƒU…O§ O§U„U†O¨O§OaO§Oa.
3) IDEAS ARE PLANTS allows us to plant ideas, watch them grow, and hope that they come to fruition.
)3 O§U„OUUƒO§O± U‡US O§U„U†O¨O§OaO§Oa OaO³U…O­ U„U†O§ O¨O²O±O¹ O§U„OUUƒO§O±OOE Uˆ U…O´O§U‡O¯OaU‡O§ OaU†U…UˆOOE UˆU†OU…U„ OU† U†O¤OaUS O«U…O§O±U‡O§.
4) UNDERSTANDING IS SEEING. I see your point!
)4 O§U„OaUO§U‡U… U‡Uˆ O§U„O±O¤USO©. OO±U‰ UˆO¬U‡O© U†O¸O±Uƒ!
A spatial metaphor: involves the use of words that are primarily associated with spatial orientation to talk about physical and psychological states.
O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© O§U„U…UƒO§U†USO©: USU†O·UˆUS O¹U„U‰ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS OaO±OaO¨O· UUS O§U„U…U‚O§U… O§U„OUˆU„ U…O¹ O§U„OaUˆO¬U‡ O§U„U…UƒO§U†US U„U„O­O¯USO« O¹U† O§U„O­O§U„O§Oa
O§U„O¬O³O¯USO© UˆO§U„U†UO³USO©.
Emotions: happy is up O§U„O¹UˆO§O·U: O§U„O³O¹O§O¯O© UUS O§U„OO¹U„U‰
Emotions: sad is down O§U„O¹UˆO§O·U: O§U„O­O²U† UUS O§U„OO³UU„
IaE™m feeling up OO´O¹O± UˆUƒOU†U†US UUS O§U„U‚U…O©
IaE™m feeling down OO´O¹O± UˆUƒOU†U†US UUS O§U„U‚O§O¹
that boosted my spirits O±UO¹ O°U„Uƒ U…O¹U†UˆUSO§OaUS
he fell in a depression O³U‚O· UUS O§U„O§UƒOaO¦O§O¨
my spirits rose O§O±OaUO¹Oa U…O¹U†UˆUSO§OaUS
her spirits sank OoO±U‚Oa U…O¹U†UˆUSO§OaU‡O§
YouaE™re in high spirits OU†Oa O¨U…O²O§O¬ U…O±OaUO¹
heaE™s feeling low USO´O¹O± O¨O§U„O¯U†Uˆ
that gave me a lift O§O¹O·O§U†US O°U„Uƒ O¯UO¹O© U„U„OO¹U„U‰
the depths of depression OO¹U…O§U‚ O§U„O¥UƒOaO¦O§O¨
Physical health: health and life are up O§U„OµO­O© O§U„O¨O¯U†USO© : O§U„OµO­O© UˆO§U„O­USO§O© UUS O§U„OO¹U„U‰
sickness and death are down O§U„U…O±O¶ UˆO§U„U…UˆOa UUS O§U„OO³UU„
HeaE™s at the peak of health OµO­OaU‡ U…U…OaO§O²O©.
HeaE™s sinking fast O¥U†U‡ USOoO±U‚ O¨O³O±O¹O©.
She rose from the dead O¹O§O¯Oa U„U„O­USO§O©
She come down with the flue U†O²U„Oa O¨U‡O§ U†O²U„O© O¨O±O¯
HeaE™s in top shape U‡Uˆ O¨OO­O³U† O­O§U„
HeaE™s feeling under the weather USO´O¹O± OU†U‡ U„USO³ O¹U„U‰ U…O§ USO±O§U…
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 38
The basis for these special metaphors seems to relate to our physical experience: Unhappiness and ill health could mean tiredness and inactivity which involve being on oneaE™s back (physically down). In contrast, happiness and good health are often correlated with energy and movement, which involve being on oneaE™s feet (physically up).
O§U„OO³O§O³ U„U‡O°U‡ O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O§Oa O§U„O®O§OµO© USO¨O¯Uˆ OU†U‡ U…OaOµU„ O¨OaO¬O±O¨OaU†O§ O§U„U…O§O¯USO©: O§U„OaO¹O§O³O© UˆO³UˆO¡ O§U„OµO­O© U‚O¯ USO¹U†US O§U„OaO¹O¨ UˆO§U„O®U…UˆU„ O§U„OaUS
OaU†O·UˆUS O¹U„U‰ UƒUˆU†U‡ U…O³OaU„U‚U‰ O¹U„U‰ O¸U‡O±U‡ )O¬O³O¯US O§ U„OO³UU„(. UUS O§U„U…U‚O§O¨U„OOE OoO§U„O¨O§ U…O§ OaO±OaO¨O· O§U„O³O¹O§O¯O© UˆO§U„OµO­O© O§U„O¬USO¯O© U…O¹ O§U„O·O§U‚O© Uˆ
O§U„O­O±UƒO©OOE UˆO§U„OaUS OaU†O·UˆUS O¹U„U‰ UƒUˆU†U‡ UˆO§U‚U O¹U„U‰ U‚O¯U…U‡ )O¬O³O¯US O§ U„OO¹U„U‰(.
An idiom is an expression whose meaning cannot be derived directly from the string of words that make up the expression.
O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO© U‡Uˆ O§U„OaO¹O¨USO± O§U„O°US U„O§ USU…UƒU† OU† USO³OaU…O¯ U…O¨O§O´O±O© U…U† O³U„O³U„O© U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„OaUS OaO´UƒU„ O§U„OaO¹O¨USO±.
For example, if something is a piece of cake, it is easy to do. If an idea is completely off the wall, you may not be able to make heads or tails of it. Whether you hit books or hit the sack, you arenaE™t actually physically hitting anything. Your hands are not physically involved in lending someone a hand (Joke: what if the person did not return it?)
kick the bucket: to die OU† USU…UˆOa
fly off the handle: to lose one’s temper OU† USUU‚O¯ O§U„O´O®Oµ OO¹OµO§O¨U‡
spill the beans: to give away a secret or a surprise U„O¥UO´O§O¡ O³O± OUˆ U…UO§O¬OO©
red hearing: to introduce irrelevant arguments U„OaU‚O¯USU… O­O¬O¬ U„USO³Oa O°O§Oa OµU„O©
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE O¥O°O§ UƒO§U† U‡U†O§Uƒ O´USO¡ U‡Uˆ piece of cake OOE UU…U† O§U„O³U‡U„ O§U„U‚USO§U… O¨U‡. O¥O°O§ UƒO§U†Oa O§U„UUƒO±O© U‡US OaU…O§U… O§U‹ off the wall OOE
U‚O¯ U„O§ OaUƒUˆU† U‚O§O¯O± O§U‹ O¹U„U‰ make heads or tails U…U†U‡. U…O§ O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa hit books OUˆ hit the sack OOE U„O§ OaUƒUˆU† UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹
OaO¶O±O¨ OUS O´USO¡ O¬O³O¯US O§U‹. USO¯USUƒ U„O§ USO´O§O±UƒUˆU† UO¹U„US O§U‹ UUS lending someone a hand )U†UƒOaO©: U…O§O°O§ U„Uˆ O§U„O´O®Oµ U„U… USO¹O¯U‡O§ U„Uƒ(
Although an idiom is semantically like a single word, it does not function like one. Thus, we will not have a past tense *kick the bucketed. Instead, it functions to some degree as a normal sequence of grammatical words, so that the past tenseaE™s form is kicked the bucket.
O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO© U‡US O¯U„O§U„US O§ U…O«U„ UƒU„U…O© UˆO§O­O¯O©OOE UO¥U†U‡O§ U„O§ OaO¹U…U„ UƒUˆO§O­O¯O©. UˆO¨O§U„OaO§U„US OOE U„U† USUƒUˆU† U„O¯USU†O§ OµUSOoO©
O§U„U…O§O¶US *kick the bucketed . O¨O¯U„O§ U…U† O°U„UƒOOE USO¹U…U„ O¥U„U‰ O­O¯ U…O§ O¹U„U‰ OU†U‡O§ OaO³U„O³U„ O·O¨USO¹US U…U† O§U„UƒU„U…O§Oa O§U„U†O­UˆUSO©OOE O¨O­USO« OµUSOoO©
O§U„U…O§O¶US U„U‡O§ U‡US kicked the bucket .
But there are other grammatical restrictions
A large number of idioms contain a verb and noun, but although the verb may be placed in the past tense, the number of the noun can never be changed.
We have spilled the beans, but not *spilled the bean
*fly of the handles
*kick the buckets
*put on good faces
*blow oneaE™s tops U„UƒU† U‡U†O§Uƒ U‚USUˆO¯ U†O­UˆUSO© OO®O±U‰
UˆU‡U†O§Uƒ O¹O¯O¯ UƒO¨USO± U…U† O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO© O§U„OaUS OaO­OaUˆUS O¹U„U‰ UO¹U„ UˆO§O³U…OOE UˆU„UƒU† O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† O§U„UO¹U„ U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† O¨OµUSOoO© O§U„U…O§O¶USOOE
OU„O§ OU† O¹O¯O¯ O§U„O§O³U… U„O§ USU…UƒU† OO¨O¯ O§U‹ OU† USOaOoUSO±.
U„O¯USU†O§ spilled the beans OOE UˆU„UƒU† U„USO³ *spilled the bean
*fly of the handles
*kick the buckets
*blow oneaE™s tops
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 39
Exercise:
Idiom vs. Metaphor
An idiom is an expression where the meaning is not immediately apparent from a literal interpretation of the words.
A metaphor is a comparison made between A and B, where you say A actually is B, even though that’s not literally true.
OaU…O±USU†:
O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO© U…U‚O§O¨U„ O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O©
O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„O®O§OµO© U‡US OaO¹O¨USO± O­USO« O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ U„USO³ UˆO§O¶O­ O§U‹ O¹U„U‰ O§U„UUˆO± U…U† O§U„OaUO³USO± O§U„O­O±UUS U„U„UƒU„U…O©.
O§U„O§O³OaO¹O§O±O© U‡US U…U‚O§O±U†O© O¨USU† )OU„U( Uˆ)O¨O§O¡(OOE O­USO« USU…UƒU†Uƒ O§U„U‚UˆU„ OU† )OU„U( U‡US O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹ )O¨O§O¡(OOE O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† U‡O°O§ U„USO³ OµO­USO­ O§U‹
O­O±UUS O§U‹.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 40
Lecture 13
The Co-Operative Principle
In order to interpret an utterance correctly, one need to follow some conversation rules (our understanding of how language is used in particular situations to convey a message)
If I ask you:
Would you like to go to a movie tonight?
and you responded:
I have to study for an exam
U…U† OO¬U„ OaUO³USO± O§U„UƒU„O§U… O¨O´UƒU„ OµO­USO­OOE OaO­OaO§O¬ O§U„O´O®Oµ O¥U„U‰ O§OaO¨O§O¹ O¨O¹O¶ U‚UˆO§O¹O¯ O§U„U…O­O§O¯O«O© )UU‡U…U†O§ U„UƒUSUUSO© O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… O§U„U„OoO© UUS O­O§U„O§Oa
U…O¹USU†O© U„U†U‚U„ O±O³O§U„O© U…O§(
O¥O°O§ O³OU„OaUƒ:
U‡U„ OaO±USO¯ OU† OaO°U‡O¨ O¥U„U‰ O§U„O³USU†U…O§ O§U„U„USU„O©OY
Uˆ UƒO§U† O±O¯Uƒ:
USO¬O¨ OU† OO¯O±O³ U„U„O§U…OaO­O§U†
I know that you are declining my invitation even though there is nothing in the literal meaning of the sentence that says no.
As speakers of a language, we are able to draw inferences about what is meant but not actually said.
OO¹U„U… OU†Uƒ OaO±UO¶ O¯O¹UˆOaUS O¹U„U‰ O§U„O±OoU… U…U† OU† U„USO³ U‡U†O§Uƒ O´USO¦ O§ UUS O§U„U…O¹U†U‰ O§U„O­O±UUS U„U„O¬U…U„O© OU†U‡ USU‚UˆU„ U„O§.
UƒU…OaO­O¯O«USU† U„U„OoO© U…O§OOE U†O­U† U‚O§O¯O±UˆU† O¹U„U‰ O±O³U… O§O³OaU†OaO§O¬O§Oa O­UˆU„ U…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„U…U‚OµUˆO¯OOE U„UƒU†U‡ U„U… USU‚O§U„ UUS O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹.
Information that is conveyed in that way is implicature.
The general overarching guideline for conversational interactions is often called the co-operative principle.
O§U„U…O¹U„UˆU…O§Oa O§U„OaUS USOaU… U†U‚U„U‡O§ O¨U‡O°U‡ O§U„O·O±USU‚O© U‡US U…O±OaO¨O·O© O¶U…U†US O§U‘.
O§U„U…O¨O¯O O§U„OaUˆO¬USU‡US O§U„O´O§U…U„ O§U„O¹O§U… U„OaUO§O¹U„O§Oa O§U„OaO®O§O·O¨ OoO§U„O¨O§ U…O§ USO·U„U‚ O¹U„USU‡ U…O¨O¯O O§U„OaO¹O§UˆU†USO©.
The co-operation principle:
Make your contribution appropriate to the conversation. Supporting this principle are four maxims, often called the Gricean maximsaE. Quantity, Quality, Relation and Manner.
1. The Quantity maxim: Make your contribution as informative as is required, but not more, or less, than is required.
2. The Quality maxim: Do not say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack adequate evidence.
3. The Relation maxim: Be relevant.
4. The Manner maxim: Be clear, brief and orderly. U…O¨O¯O O§U„OaO¹O§UˆU†USO©
O§O¬O¹U„ U…O³O§U‡U…O§OaUƒ U…U†O§O³O¨O© U„U„U…O­O§O¯O«O© . USO¯O¹U… U‡O°O§ O§U„U…O¨O¯O OO±O¨O¹O© O«UˆO§O¨OaOOE OoO§U„O¨ O§ U…O§ OaO³U…U‰ ” O«UˆO§O¨Oa OoO±USO³U†”. O§U„UƒU…USO©OOE O§U„O¬UˆO¯O©OOE O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O©
UˆO§U„O³U„UˆUƒ.
.2 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„UƒU…USO©: O§O¬O¹U„ U…O³O§U‡U…O§OaUƒ U…O¹U„UˆU…O© O¨O§U„U‚O¯O± O§U„U…O·U„UˆO¨OOE U„USO³ OUƒO«O± OUˆ OU‚U„ U…U…O§ U‡Uˆ U…O·U„UˆO¨.
.1 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¬UˆO¯O©: U„O§ OaU‚UˆU„ U…O§ OaO¹OaU‚O¯ OU†U‡ UƒO§O°O¨ OUˆ O¥O°O§ UƒU†Oa OaUOaU‚O± U„OO¯U„O© UƒO§UUSO© .
.3 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O©: UƒU† UˆO«USU‚ O§U„OµU„O© O¨O§U„U…UˆO¶UˆO¹.
.4 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O³U„UˆUƒ: UƒU† UˆO§O¶O­ O§OOEU‘ U…UˆO¬O² UˆU…U†O¸U… .
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 41
We use hedges to show that we are concerned about following the maxims while being co-operative participants in conversation.
Hedges are words or phrases used to indicate that weaE™re not really sure that what weaE™re saying is sufficiently correct or complete.
U†O­U† U†O³OaO®O¯U… O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O·O§O· U„U†O¸U‡O± OU†U†O§ U‚U„U‚UˆU† O¨O§OaO¨O§O¹ O§U„O«UˆO§O¨Oa UUS O­USU† UƒUˆU†U†O§ U…O´O§O±UƒUSU† OaO¹O§UˆU†USUSU† UUS O§U„U…O­O§O¯O«O©.
O§U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O·O§O· U‡US UƒU„U…O§Oa OUˆ O¹O¨O§O±O§Oa U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© U„U„O¥O´O§O±O© O¥U„U‰ OU†U†O§ U„O³U†O§ U…OaOUƒO¯USU† O­U‚ O§ OU† U…O§ U†U‚UˆU„U‡ U‡Uˆ O§U„OµO­USO­ O¨U…O§ UUSU‡ O§U„UƒUO§USO© OUˆ
UƒO§U…U„.
We can use sort of or kind of as hedges on the accuracy of our statements,
i⤠as in His hair was kind of long
i⤠or The book cover is sort of yellow.
These are examples of hedges on the Quality maxim.
USU…UƒU†U†O§ O§O³OaO®O¯O§U… U†UˆO¹ U…O§ OUˆ U†UˆO¹ U…U† UƒUƒU„O§U… U…O·O§O· O¹U„U‰ O¯U‚O© O¨USO§U†O§OaU†O§OOE
i‚§ UƒU…O§ U‡Uˆ O§U„O­O§U„ UUS UƒO§U† O´O¹O±U‡ U†UˆO¹ U…O§ O·UˆUS U„O§ .
i‚§ OUˆ O¬U„O¯O© O§U„UƒOaO§O¨ U‡Uˆ U†UˆO¹ U…O§ U…OµUO±O©.
U‡O°U‡ OU…O«U„O© U„U„UƒU„O§U… O§U„U…O·O§O· O¹U„U‰ O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¬UˆO¯O©.
Other examples would include the expressions that people sometimes put at the beginning of their conversational contributions.
i‚§ As far as I know …,
i‚§ Now, correct me if IaE™m wrong, but …
i‚§ IaE™m not absolutely sure, but …
U‚O¯ OaO´U…U„ OU…O«U„O© OO®O±U‰ O¹U„U‰ O§U„OaO¹O§O¨USO± O§U„OaUS USO¶O¹U‡O§ O§U„U†O§O³ UUS O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO­USO§U† UUS O¨O¯O§USO© U…O³O§U‡U…O§OaU‡U… O§U„OaO®O§O·O¨USO©.
i‚§ O¨U‚O¯O± U…O§ OO¹O±U …OOE
i‚§ O§U„O¢U† OOE OµO­O­ U„US O¥O°O§ UƒU† Oa U…O®O·O¦ O§ OOE UˆU„UƒU† …
i‚§ U„O³Oa U…OaOUƒO¯ O§ OaU…O§U… O§ OOE UˆU„UƒU† …
Hence the difference between saying:
i⤠Jackson is guilty
i‚§ and I think itaE™s possible that Jackson may be guilty.
In the first version, we will be assumed to have very good evidence for the statement. (the Maxim of Quality)
UˆO¨O§U„OaO§U„US O§U„UO±U‚ O¨USU† O§U„U‚UˆU„USU†:
i‚§ O¬O§UƒO³UˆU† U…O°U†O¨
i‚§ Uˆ OO¹OaU‚O¯ OU†U‡ U…U† O§U„U…U…UƒU† OU†U‡ U‚O¯ USUƒUˆU† O¬O§UƒO³UˆU† U…O°U†O¨ O§ .
UUS O§U„U†O³O®O© O§U„OUˆU„U‰OOE U†O­U† O³UˆU U†UOaO±O¶ OU†U‡ U„O¯USU†O§ O¯U„USU„ O¬USO¯ O¬O¯ O§U‹ U„U„OaOµO±USO­. )O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¬UˆO¯O©(
Flouting or Violating the Maxims O§U„O¥O³OaO®UO§U O¨O§U„O«UˆO§O¨Oa OUˆ U…O®O§U„UOaU‡O§
1. The Maxim of Quantity:
A. How do I look?
B. Your shoes are nice.
Speaker A here would understand that the whole appearance is not that appealing which made speaker B comment only on a small part of it.
.2 O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„UƒU…USO©:
A . UƒUSU OO¨O¯UˆOY
B . O­O°O§O¦Uƒ OU†USU‚.
O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« A U‡U†O§ O³UˆU USUU‡U… OU† O§U„U…O¸U‡O± O§U„UƒU„US U„USO³ O¬O°O§O¨ U…U…O§ O¬O¹U„ B O§U„U…OaO­O¯O« USO¹U„U‚ UU‚O· O¹U„U‰ O¬O²O¡ OµOoUSO± U…U†U‡.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 42
Another example is when someone asks:
i⤠Have you finished your homework and cleaned your room?
i⤠and the reply is I have finished my homework.
U…O«O§U„ O¢O®O± U‡Uˆ O¹U†O¯U…O§ USO³OU„ O´O®Oµ U…O§:
i‚§ U‡U„ O§U†OaU‡Oa U…U† UˆO§O¬O¨O§OaUƒ UˆOaU†O¸USU OoO±UOaUƒOY
i‚§ UˆO§U„O±O¯ U‡Uˆ U„U‚O¯ O§U†OaU‡USOa U…U† UˆO§O¬O¨O§OaUS.
2. The Maxim of Quality requires that the statements used in a conversation have some factual basis.
2. O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¬UˆO¯O© OaOaO·U„O¨ OU† O§U„OaOµO±USO­O§Oa O§U„U…O³OaO®O¯U…O© UUS O§U„U…O­O§O¯O«O© U„U‡O§ O¨O¹O¶ O§U„OO³O§O³ O§U„UˆO§U‚O¹US.
If we are in the middle of summer in Riyadh, for example, and I ask
i‚§ WhataE™s the weather like today?
i‚§ And someone responds ItaE™s snowing as usual.
I would know that the statement is not intended to be true but perhaps irony or sarcasm.
O¥O°O§ UƒU†O§ UUS U…U†OaOµU UOµU„ O§U„OµUSU UUS O§U„O±USO§O¶OOE O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE UˆO³OU„Oa
i‚§ U…O§ U‡US O­O§U„O© O§U„O·U‚O³ O§U„USUˆU…OY
i‚§ UˆO´O®Oµ USO³OaO¬USO¨ O¥U† O§U„O«U„UˆO¬ OaOaO³O§U‚O· UƒO§U„U…O¹OaO§O¯.
U„O§O¨O¯ OU† OO¹O±U OU† O§U„OaOµO±USO­ U„O§ USU‚OµO¯ O¨U‡ OU† USUƒUˆU† OµO­USO­ O§U‹ UˆU„UƒU† O±O¨U…O§ U„U„O³O®O±USO© OUˆ O§U„OaU‡UƒU….
3. The Maxim of Relation:
Failure to respect the maxim of relation creates an odd effect.
For example, if someone asks you
i⤠Have you finished your homework yet?
i‚§ and you responded ItaE™s being raining a lot lately, hasnaE™t it?
You violated the Maxim of Relation by not responding in a relevant way.
But by giving this response, you signal that you want to change the topic of conversation.
3. O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O©:
O¹O¯U… OaU‚O¯USO± O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© USO®U„U‚ OaOO«USO± O§U‹ OoO±USO¨ O§U‹.
O¹U„U‰ O³O¨USU„ O§U„U…O«O§U„OOE O¥O°O§ O³OU„Uƒ O´O®Oµ U…O§
i‚§ U‡U„ O§U†OaU‡USOa U…U† UˆO§O¬O¨O§OaUƒ O­OaU‰ O§U„O¢U†OY
i‚§ UˆOU†Oa OO¬O¨Oa O§U†U‡O§ OaU…O·O± UƒO«USO± O§ UUS O§U„O¢UˆU†O© O§U„OO®USO±O©OOE OU„USO³ UƒO°U„UƒOY
UƒU†Oa O§U†OaU‡UƒOa O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O¹U„O§U‚O© U…U† O®U„O§U„ O¹O¯U… O§U„O¥O³OaO¬O§O¨O© O¨O·O±USU‚O© O°O§Oa O§U„OµU„O© O¨O§U„U…UˆO¶UˆO¹.
UˆU„UƒU† U…U† O®U„O§U„ O¥O¹O·O§O¡ U‡O°O§ O§U„O±O¯OOE UOU†Oa OaO´USO± O¥U„U‰ OU†Uƒ OaO±USO¯ OaOoUSUSO± U…UˆO¶UˆO¹ O§U„U…O­O§O¯O«O©.
4. The Maxim of Manner
In the following exchange, B flouts the maxim of manner, thereby implying that an open discussion of the ice cream is not desired:
A: LetaE™s get the kids something.
B: Okay, but I veto l-C-E C-R-E-A-M-S.
4. O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O³U„UˆUƒ
UUS O§U„OaO¨O§O¯U„ O§U„OaO§U„USOOE B USO³OaO®U O¨O«UˆO§O¨Oa O§U„O³U„UˆUƒOOE U…U…O§ USO¹U†US OU† U…U†O§U‚O´O© U…UOaUˆO­O© O¹U† O§U„O¢USO³ UƒO±USU… OoUSO± U…O±OoUˆO¨O©:
A : O¯O¹UˆU†O§ U†OO®O° O´USO¦ O§ U„U„OO·UO§U„.
B : O­O³U† O§ OOE UˆU„UƒU† OU†O§ OO±UO¶ O§U„O¢USO³UƒO±USU….
Exercise:
Which maxim does this speaker seem to be particularly careful about?
I may be mistaken, but I thought I saw a wedding ring on his finger.
a) The Quantity maxim. c) The Relation maxim.
b) The Quality maxim. d) The Manner maxim.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 43
Lecture 14
Review
(1) Semantics is:
a) The study of words origins.
b) The study of words meaning.
c) The study of how words are structured in sentences.
d) The study of meaning that a word or a sentence has in a particular context.
(2) Language speakers can say one thing and mean another thing through
a) The usual meaning of a word or a sentence.
b) What words mean in the dictionary.
c) The meaning that a word or a sentence has in specific contexts or circumstances.
d) What sentences mean without looking at the context.
(3) All the followings are examples of paralanguage except for:
a) Nodding
b) Laughing
c) Giggling
d) Crying
(4) The meaning of a word is included in another word, In the case of:
a) Polysemy
b) Synonymy
c) Hyponymy
d) Entailment
(5) What is the basic lexical relation between each pair of words listed here?
a) story & tale
b) heavy & light
c) fruit & banana
d) peace & piece
(6) What does prototypeaE mean? Illustrate your definition with an example.
(7) Waiting impatiently for food at a restaurant, the man said: I can eat a horse right now.aE
Explain the meaning of this quotation in some details.
(8) Identify the semantic roles of the seven noun phrases in this sentence:
With her new golf club, Fatimah whacked the ball from the woods to the grassy area near the hole and she suddenly felt unbeatable.
O±USU… O§U„O¹U…O§O¯US Page 44
(9) Use semantic features to explain the reason these sentences sound odd.
a) The chicken studies mathematics.
b) The train will marry Jessica.
(10) Tell which of the following opposites are gradable, non-gradable, or reversive.
a) fill it / empty it
b) absent / present
c) old / young
d) fair / unfair
(11) What kind of inference is involved in interpreting each of these utterances?
a) Teacher: You can borrow my Shakespeare.
b) Waiter: The ham sandwich left without paying.
c) Nurse: The hernia in room 5 wants to talk to the doctor.
d) Dentist: My eleven4hirty canceled so I had an early lunch.
(21) Which of these utterances contain performative verbsaE and how did you decide?
a) I apologize.
b) (2)1 bet you $20.
c) She won the bet.
d) I drive a Mercedes.
e) You must have a lot of money.
f) I testify there is no God but Allah…
(13) What would you call two or more words that often go together, as in the word blond usually going with hair?
Give two more examples to illustrate.
(14) The Co-Operative Principle was suggested by the philosopher?
(25) Each of BaE™s utterances below would probably flout (ignore) one of the four maxims.
Say what maxim the speaker is flouting, and give a possible reason for this ignorance.
A. Do you want to go to the movies tonight?
B. My little sister is coming for a visit.
The maxim flouted? A possible reason?
A. Where are you going?
B. Out.
The maxim flouted? A possible reason?


image of aenphotography

aenphotography

World Tavern Trivia Bonus Question - Buzzfeed staff can you beat your friends at this quiz?.
From: aenphotography.blogspot.com


image of Anthem FC Barcelona اغنيه نادي برشلونه

Anthem FC Barcelona اغنيه نادي برشلونه

Comment by Thepratik10. visa el Barca. 2021-08-23T20:29:06Z Comment by ld. lionellllllllllllllllllllllllll messsi. 2021-07-18T11:00:06Z Comment by 🎶🎶🎶. mes ...Stream Anthem FC Barcelona O§OoU†USU‡ U†O§O¯US O¨O±O´U„UˆU†U‡ by Ce Ma Vie Quoi on desktop and mobile. Play over 265 million tracks for free on SoundCloud..
Keyword: record, sounds, share, sound, audio, tracks, music, soundcloud
From: soundcloud.com


لعريضة ترقص على اغنية …

.
From: www.youtube.com


NPI

شركة النيل هي شركة متخصصة في تصنيع مواسير UPVC عالية الجودة والتركيب وفقًا للمواصفات التالية: - المواصفات القياسية الألمانية DIN 8061/8062 والمواصفات المصرية 1717/2008 - المواصفات الأمريكية ASTMD 2241 SDR ....
From: www.npipipes.com


image of Srknxomofljgp

Srknxomofljgp

Aug 05, 2021 · Read more سعد لمجرد انستقرام : Live Saad Lamjarred Ù ÙŠ Instagram قبل اطلا٠اغنية Salam Youtube - إمكانية حذف حساب انستقرام عبر التطبيق. August 05, 2021 Read more August 04, 2021 Older Posts.
Keyword: Srknxomofljgp
From: srknxomofljgpzc.blogspot.com


image of yytellu

yytellu

Nov 21, 2021 · 2 days ago · meme cryptocurrencies may soon have a new top dog. T… Read more Cryptocurrency Shiba Inu Coin / Dogecoin Shiba Inu S Battle For Supremacy Puts Spotlight On Lesser Known Dog Coins Technology News : Shiba inu is a decentralized cryptocurrency token created..
Keyword: yytellu
From: yytellu.blogspot.com


Blogger - Saturday, March 16, 2002

شهر غم. Saturday, March 16, 2002. خسته ام. از دنیای دو رنگی از این همه ٠ریب Ùˆ تظاهر. نوشته شده ….
From: shamim.blogspot.com


تعر٠على قصة أغنى سيدة Ù …

Aug 26, 2021 · øTÉN=] ‰ Bga —T’ÈPˆð þ Ð ™È4&+ ©K+$ ›Úô%5•éMlò’š `† ´ P Tž€V©=éé v k†§Œ”äQ!ÉÔ̈ *‰àiS¢2 ©NÕDIYQgžRÕÿ Å ˜èl" ú £FuFCña #¨U®œ ....
From: www.youtube.com


image of Find شغÙ

Find شغÙ"طرب Meaning in Urdu to English Dictionary, Ø ...

Translation of شغÙ"طرب Word in Urdu to English Dictionary, شغÙ"طرب Meaning from Urdu to English. شغÙ"طرب Related words and شغÙ"طرب Similar words in Urdu. شغÙ"طرب Sentence Meanings and Definition in English to Urdu DictionaryTranslation of O´OoU"O·O±O¨ Word in Urdu to English Dictionary, O´OoU"O·O±O¨ Meaning from Urdu to English. O´OoU"O·O±O¨ Related words and O´OoU"O·O±O¨ Similar words in Urdu. O´OoU"O·O±O¨ Sentence Meanings and Definition in English to Urdu Dictionary.
Keyword: english to urdu words, english to urdu dictionary, dictionary urdu to urdu, urdu dictionary name meaning
From: www.urdupoint.com


اتصل بنا – NPI

الادارة: 171 ابراج سما العدوي – طريق سقارة – المريوطية – الهرم. تليفون: 375027062 – 02 / 37527063 -02 ....
From: www.npipipes.com


GHADEGHAN

May 06, 2002 · با هم Ùˆ تنها قدغن... posted by ahmad at 8:47 PM . Saturday, June 29, 2002. posted by ahmad at 1:08 AM . Monday, May 06, 2002. سلام posted by ahmad at 4:06 AM . About Me Name: ahmad ..
From: gadeghan.blogspot.com


اغنية Mp3

تحميل اغنية تحميل اغنية Mp3 Mp4. تشغيلتحميل O§OoU†USO©.
Keyword: mp4, mp3, اغنية
From: sm3ha.mobi


Results for طها رة translation from Arabic to Malay

Translation API; About MyMemory; Log inContextual translation of "O·U‡O§ O±O©" from Arabic into Malay. Examples translated by humans: sorot, buka fail, 1 5 baris, nama medan, mesej emel, ubah kepada..
From: mymemory.translated.net