rape

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Rape - Wikipedia

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From: en.wikipedia.org

Type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse without consent

Rape is a type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse or other forms of sexual penetration carried out against a person without that person's consent. The act may be carried out by physical force, coercion, abuse of authority, or against a person who is incapable of giving valid consent, such as one who is unconscious, incapacitated, has an intellectual disability, or is below the legal age of consent.[1][2] The term rape is sometimes used interchangeably with the term sexual assault.[3]

The rate of reporting, prosecuting and convicting for rape varies between jurisdictions. Internationally, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police during 2008 ranged, per 100,000 people, from 0.2 in Azerbaijan to 92.9 in Botswana with 6.3 in Lithuania as the median.[4] Worldwide, sexual violence, including rape, is primarily committed by males against females.[5] Rape by strangers is usually less common than rape by people the victim knows, and male-on-male and female-on-female prison rapes are common and may be the least reported forms of rape.[6][7][8]

Widespread and systematic rape (e.g., war rape) and sexual slavery can occur during international conflict. These practices are crimes against humanity and war crimes. Rape is also recognized as an element of the crime of genocide when committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a targeted ethnic group.

People who have been raped can be traumatized and develop post-traumatic stress disorder.[9] Serious injuries can result along with the risk of pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. A person may face violence or threats from the rapist, and, sometimes, from the victim's family and relatives.[10][11][12]

Etymology

The term rape originates from the Latin rapere (supine stem raptum), "to snatch, to grab, to carry off".[13][14] In Roman law, the carrying off of a woman by force, with or without intercourse, constituted "raptus".[14] In Medieval English law the same term could refer to either kidnapping or rape in the modern sense of "sexual violation".[13][15] The original meaning of "carry off by force" is still found in some phrases, such as "rape and pillage", or in titles, such as the stories of the Rape of the Sabine Women and The Rape of Europa or the poem The Rape of the Lock, which is about the theft of a lock of hair.

Definitions General

Rape is defined in most jurisdictions as sexual intercourse, or other forms of sexual penetration, committed by a perpetrator against a victim without their consent.[16] The definition of rape is inconsistent between governmental health organizations, law enforcement, health providers, and legal professions.[17] It has varied historically and culturally.[16][17] Originally, rape had no sexual connotation and is still used in other contexts in English. In Roman law, it or raptus was classified as a form of crimen vis, "crime of assault".[18][19] Raptus referred to the abduction of a woman against the will of the man under whose authority she lived, and sexual intercourse was not a necessary element. Other definitions of rape have changed over time.

Until 2012, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) considered rape a crime solely committed by men against women. In 2012, they changed their definition from "The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will" to "The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim." The previous definition, which had remained unchanged since 1927, was considered outdated and narrow. The updated definition includes recognizing any gender of victim and perpetrator and that rape with an object can be as traumatic as penile/vaginal rape. The bureau further describes instances when the victim is unable to give consent because of mental or physical incapacity. It recognizes that a victim can be incapacitated by drugs and alcohol and unable to give valid consent. The definition does not change federal or state criminal codes or impact charging and prosecution on the federal, state, or local level; it rather means that rape will be more accurately reported nationwide.[20][21]

Health organizations and agencies have also expanded rape beyond traditional definitions. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rape as a form of sexual assault,[22] while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) includes rape in their definition of sexual assault; they term rape a form of sexual violence. The CDC lists other acts of coercive, non-consensual sexual activity that may or may not include rape, including drug-facilitated sexual assault, acts in which a victim is made to penetrate a perpetrator or someone else, intoxication where the victim is unable to consent (due to incapacitation or being unconscious), non-physically forced penetration which occurs after a person is pressured verbally (by intimidation or misuse of authority to force to consent), or completed or attempted forced penetration of a victim via unwanted physical force (including using a weapon or threatening to use a weapon).[23][24] The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented universal screening for what has been termed "military sexual trauma" (MST) and provides medical and mental health services free of charge to enrolled veterans who report MST (Title 38 United States Code 1720D; Public Law 108-422).

Some countries or jurisdictions differentiate between rape and sexual assault by defining rape as involving penile penetration of the vagina, or solely penetration involving the penis, while other types of non-consensual sexual activity are called sexual assault.[25][26] Scotland, for example, emphasizes penile penetration, requiring that the sexual assault must have been committed by use of a penis to qualify as rape.[27][28] The 1998 International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda defines rape as "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive".[16] In other cases, the term rape has been phased out of legal use in favor of terms such as sexual assault or criminal sexual conduct.[29]

Scope

Victims of rape or sexual assault come from a wide range of genders, ages, sexual orientations, ethnicities, geographical locations, cultures, and degrees of impairment or disability. Incidences of rape are classified into a number of categories, and they may describe the relationship of the perpetrator to the victim and the context of the sexual assault. These include date rape, gang rape, marital rape, incestual rape, child sexual abuse, prison rape, acquaintance rape, war rape and statutory rape. Forced sexual activity can be committed over a long period of time with little to no physical injury.[31][32][33]

Consent

Lack of consent is key to the definition of rape.[34] Consent is affirmative "informed approval, indicating a freely given agreement" to sexual activity.[23] It is not necessarily expressed verbally, and may instead be overtly implied from actions, but the absence of objection does not constitute consent.[35] Lack of consent may result from either forcible compulsion by the perpetrator or an inability to consent on the part of the victim (such as people who are asleep, intoxicated or otherwise mentally compromised).[36] Sexual intercourse with a person below the age of consent, i.e., the age at which legal competence is established, is referred to as statutory rape.[37] In India, consensual sex given on the false promise of marriage constitutes rape.[38]

Duress is the situation when the person is threatened by force or violence and may result in the absence of an objection to sexual activity. This can lead to the presumption of consent.[36] Duress may be actual or threatened force or violence against the victim or someone close to the victim. Even blackmail may constitute duress. Abuse of power may constitute duress. For instance, in the Philippines, a man commits rape if he engages in sexual intercourse with a woman "By means of fraudulent machination or grave abuse of authority".[39] The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in its landmark 1998 judgment used a definition of rape that did not use the word 'consent': "a physical invasion of a sexual nature committed on a person under circumstances which are coercive."[40]

Marital rape, or spousal rape, is non-consensual sex in which the perpetrator is the victim's spouse. It is a form of partner rape, domestic violence, and sexual abuse. Once widely accepted or ignored by law, marital rape is now denounced by international conventions and is increasingly criminalized. Still, in many countries, marital rape either remains legal or is illegal but widely tolerated and accepted as a husband's prerogative. In 2006, the UN Secretary-General's In-depth study on all forms of violence against women stated that (pg 113): "Marital rape may be prosecuted in at least 104 states. Of these, 32 have made marital rape a specific criminal offense, while the remaining 74 do not exempt marital rape from general rape provisions. Marital rape is not a prosecutable offense in at least 53 States. Four States criminalize marital rape only when the spouses are judicially separated. Four States are considering legislation that would allow marital rape to be prosecuted."[41] Since 2006, several other states have outlawed marital rape (for example Thailand in 2007[42]).

In the US, the criminalization of marital rape started in the mid-1970s, and in 1993 North Carolina became the last state to make marital rape illegal.[43] In many countries, it is not clear if marital rape may or may not be prosecuted under ordinary rape laws. In the absence of a marital rape law, it may be possible to bring prosecution for acts of forced sexual intercourse inside marriage by prosecuting, through the use of other criminal offenses (such as assault based offenses), the acts of violence or criminal threat that were used to obtain submission.[44]

Consent may be complicated by law, language, context, culture and sexual orientation.[45] Studies have shown that men consistently perceive women's actions as more sexual than they intend.[46] In addition, verbalized 'no' to sex may be interpreted as 'keep trying', or even 'yes' by offenders. Some may believe that when injuries are not visible, the woman must have consented. If a man solicits sex from another man, the pursuer may be regarded as virile.[45]

Motives

The WHO states that the principal factors that lead to the perpetration of sexual violence against women, including rape, are:[47]

No single facet explains the motivation for rape; the underlying motives of rapists can be multi-faceted. Several factors have been proposed: anger,[48] power,[49] sadism, sexual gratification, or evolutionary proclivities.[50][51] However, some factors have significant causal evidence supporting them. American clinical psychologist David Lisak, co-author of a 2002 study of undetected rapists,[52] says that compared with non-rapists, both undetected and convicted rapists are measurably more angry at women and more motivated by a desire to dominate and control them, are more impulsive, disinhibited, anti-social, hypermasculine, and less empathic.[53]

Sexual aggression is often considered a masculine identity characteristic of manhood in some male groups and is significantly correlated to the desire to be held higher in esteem among male peers.[54] Sexually aggressive behavior among young men has been correlated with gang or group membership as well as having other delinquent peers.[55][56]

Gang rape is often perceived by male perpetrators as a justified method of discouraging or punishing what they consider as immoral behavior among women for example wearing short skirts or visiting bars. In some areas in Papua New Guinea, women can be punished by public gang rape, usually through permission by elders.[57][needs update]

Gang rape and mass rape are often used as a means of male bonding. This is particularly evident among soldiers, as gang rape accounts for about three quarters or more of war rape, while gang rape accounts for less than a quarter of rapes during peacetime. Commanders sometimes push recruits to rape, as committing rape can be taboo and illegal and so builds loyalty among those involved. Rebel groups who have forced recruitment as opposed to volunteer recruits are more involved in rape, as it is believed the recruits start with less loyalty to the group.[58] In Papua New Guinea, urban gangs such as Raskol gangs often require raping women for initiation reasons.[59]

Perpetrators of sex trafficking and cybersex trafficking allow or carry out rape[60][61][62] for financial gain[63] and or sexual gratification.[64] Rape pornography, including child pornography, is created for profit and other reasons.[65] There have been instances of child sexual abuse and child rape videos on Pornhub.[66][67]

Effects

One metric used by the WHO to determine the severity of global rates of coercive, forced sexual activity was the question "Have you ever been forced to have sexual intercourse against your will?" Asking this question produced higher positive response rates than being asked, whether they had ever been abused or raped.[68]

The WHO report describes the consequences of sexual abuse:

Emotional and psychological

Frequently, victims may not recognize what happened to them was rape. Some may remain in denial for years afterwards.[69][70] Confusion over whether or not their experience constitutes rape is typical, especially for victims of psychologically coerced rape. Women may not identify their victimization as rape for many reasons such as feelings of shame, embarrassment, non-uniform legal definitions, reluctance to define the friend/partner as a rapist, or because they have internalized victim-blaming attitudes.[70] The public often perceives these behaviors as 'counterintuitive' and, therefore, as evidence of a dishonest woman.[69]

During the assault, a person will respond with fight, flight, freeze, friend (sometimes called fawn),[71] or flop. Victims may react in ways they did not anticipate. After the rape, they may be uncomfortable/frustrated with and not understand their reactions.[72][73] Most victims respond by 'freezing up' or becoming compliant and cooperative during the rape. These are common survival responses of all mammals.[74] This can cause confusion for others and the person assaulted. An assumption is that someone being raped would call for help or struggle. A struggle would result in torn clothes or injuries.[72]

Dissociation can occur during the assault.[72] Memories may be fragmented especially immediately afterwards. They may consolidate with time and sleep.[72] A man or boy who is raped may be stimulated and even ejaculate during the experience of the rape. A woman or girl may orgasm during a sexual assault. This may become a source of shame and confusion for those assaulted along with those who were around them.[75][76][77]

Trauma symptoms may not show until years after the sexual assault occurred. Immediately following a rape, the survivor may react outwardly in a wide range of ways, from expressive to closed down; common emotions include distress, anxiety, shame, revulsion, helplessness, and guilt.[72] Denial is not uncommon.[72]

In the weeks following the rape, the survivor may develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome and may develop a wide array of psychosomatic complaints.[72][78] PTSD symptoms include re-experiencing of the rape, avoiding things associated with the rape, numbness, and increased anxiety and startle response.[72] The likelihood of sustained severe symptoms is higher if the rapist confined or restrained the person, if the person being raped believed the rapist would kill them, the person who was raped was very young or very old, and if the rapist was someone they knew.[72] The likelihood of sustained severe symptoms is also higher if people around the survivor ignore (or are ignorant of) the rape or blame the rape survivor.[72]

Most people recover from rape in three to four months, but many have persistent PTSD that may manifest in anxiety, depression, substance abuse, irritability, anger, flashbacks, or nightmares.[72] In addition, rape survivors may have long-term generalised anxiety disorder, may develop one or more specific phobias, major depressive disorder, and may experience difficulties with resuming their social life and with sexual functioning.[72] People who have been raped are at higher risk of suicide.[75][79]

Men experience similar psychological effects of being raped, but they are less likely to seek counseling.[75]

Another effect of rape and sexual assault is the stress created in those who study rape or counsel the survivors. This is called vicarious traumatization.[80]

Physical

The presence or absence of physical injury may be used to determine whether a rape has occurred.[81] Those who have experienced sexual assault yet have no physical trauma may be less inclined to report to the authorities or to seek health care.[82]

While penetrative rape generally does not involve the use of a condom, in some cases a condom is used. The use of a condom significantly reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and disease transmission, both to the victim and the rapist. Rationales for condom use include: avoiding contracting infections or diseases (particularly HIV), especially in cases of rape of sex workers or in gang rape (to avoid contracting infections or diseases from fellow rapists); eliminating evidence, making prosecution more difficult (and giving a sense of invulnerability); giving the appearance of consent (in cases of acquaintance rape); and thrill from planning and the use of the condom as an added prop. Concern for the victim is generally not considered a factor.[83]

Sexually transmitted infections

Those who have been raped have relatively more reproductive tract infections than those who have not been raped.[84] HIV can be transmitted through rape. Acquiring AIDS through rape puts people at risk of suffering psychological problems. Acquiring HIV through rape may lead to behaviors that create a risk of injecting drugs.[85] Acquiring sexually transmitted infections increases the risk of acquiring HIV.[84] The belief that having sex with a virgin can cure HIV/AIDS exists in parts of Africa. This leads to the rape of girls and women.[86][87][88][89] The claim that the myth drives either HIV infection or child sexual abuse in South Africa is disputed by researchers Rachel Jewkes and Helen Epstein.[90]

Victim blaming, secondary victimization and other mistreatment

Society's treatment of victims has the potential to exacerbate their trauma.[70] People who have been raped or sexually assaulted are sometimes blamed and considered responsible for the crime.[17] This refers to the just world fallacy and rape myth acceptance that certain victim behaviors (such as being intoxicated, flirting or wearing sexually provocative clothing) may encourage rape.[91][92] In many cases, victims are said to have "asked for it" because of not resisting their assault or violating female gender expectations.[93][92] A global survey of attitudes toward sexual violence by the Global Forum for Health Research shows that victim-blaming concepts are at least partially accepted in many countries. Women who have been raped are sometimes deemed to have behaved improperly. Usually, these are cultures where there is a significant social divide between the freedoms and status afforded to men and women.[94]

Commentators state: "individuals may endorse rape myths and at the same time recognize the negative effects of rape."[95] A number of gender role stereotypes can play a role in rationalization of rape. These include the idea that power is reserved to men whereas women are meant for sex and objectified, that women want forced sex and to be pushed around,[96] and that male sexual impulses and behaviors are uncontrollable and must be satisfied.[97]

For females, victim-blaming correlates with fear. Many rape victims blame themselves. Female jurors might look at the woman on the witness stand and believe she had done something to entice the defendant.[98] In Chinese culture, victim-blaming is often associated with the crime of rape, as women are expected to resist rape using physical force. Thus, if rape occurs, it is considered to be at least partly the woman's fault, and her virtue is called into question.[99]

Honor killings and forced marriages

In many cultures, those who are raped have a high risk of suffering additional violence or threats of violence after the rape. This can be perpetrated by the rapist, friends, or relatives of the rapist. The intent can be to prevent the victim from reporting the rape. Other reasons for threats against those assaulted is to punish them for reporting it, or of forcing them to withdraw the complaint. The relatives of the person who has been raped may wish to prevent "bringing shame" to the family and may also threaten them. This is especially the case in cultures where female virginity is highly valued and considered mandatory before marriage; in extreme cases, rape victims are killed in honor killings.[10][11][12][100]

Treatment

In the US, victims' rights include the right to have a victims advocate preside over every step of the medical/legal exam to ensure sensitivity towards victims, provide emotional support, and minimize the risk of re-traumatization. Victims are to be informed of this immediately by law enforcement or medical service providers.[101][102] Emergency rooms of many hospitals employ sexual assault nurse/forensic examiners (SAN/FEs) with specific training to care for those who have experienced a rape or sexual assault. They are able to conduct a focused medical-legal exam. If such a trained clinician is not available, the emergency department has a sexual assault protocol that has been established for treatment and the collection of evidence.[24][103] Staff are also trained to explain the examinations in detail, the documentation and the rights associated with the requirement for informed consent. Emphasis is placed on performing the examinations at a pace that is appropriate for the person, their family, their age, and their level of understanding.[103] Privacy is recommended to prevent self-harm.[104]

Non-genital injuries Physical assessment

Many rapes do not result in serious physical injury.[105] The first medical response to sexual assault is a complete assessment. This general assessment will prioritize the treatment of injuries by the emergency room staff. Medical personnel involved are trained to assess and treat those assaulted or follow protocols established to ensure privacy and best treatment practices. Informed consent is always required prior to treatment unless the person who was assaulted is unconscious, intoxicated or does not have the mental capacity to give consent.[24][103] Priorities governing the physical exam are the treatment of serious life-threatening emergencies and then a general and complete assessment.[106] Some physical injuries are readily apparent such as, bites,[107] broken teeth, swelling, bruising, lacerations and scratches. In more violent cases, the victim may need to have gunshot wounds or stab wounds treated.[24] The loss of consciousness is relevant to the medical history.[103] If abrasions are found, immunization against tetanus is offered if 5 years have elapsed since the last immunization.[108]

Diagnostic testing

After the general assessment and treatment of serious injuries, further evaluation may include the use of additional diagnostic testing such as x-rays, CT or MRI image studies and blood work. The presence of infection is determined by sampling of body fluids from the mouth, throat, vagina, perineum, and anus.[103]

Forensic sampling

Victims have the right to refuse any evidence collection. Victims advocates ensure the victims' wishes are respected by hospital staff. After the physical injuries are addressed and treatment has begun, then forensic examination proceeds along with the gathering of evidence that can be used to identify and document the injuries.[24] Such evidence-gathering is only done with the complete consent of the patient or the caregivers of the patient. Photographs of the injuries may be requested by staff.[103] At this point in the treatment, if a victims' advocate had not been requested earlier, experienced social support staff are made available to the patient and family.[109]

If the patient or the caregivers (typically parents) agree, the medical team utilizes standardized sampling and testing usually referred to as a forensic evidence kit or "rape kit".[103] The patient is informed that submitting to the use of the rape kit does not obligate them to file criminal charges against the perpetrator. The patient is discouraged from bathing or showering to obtain samples from their hair.[109] Evidence gathered within the past 72 hours is more likely to be valid.[103] The sooner that samples are obtained after the assault, the more likely that evidence is present in the sample and provides valid results. Once the injuries of the patient have been treated and she or he is stabilized, the sample gathering will begin. Staff will encourage the presence of a rape/sexual assault counselor to provide an advocate and reassurance.[109]

During the medical exam, evidence of bodily secretions is assessed. Dried semen that is on clothing and skin can be detected with a fluorescent lamp.[103][110] Notes will be attached to those items on which semen has been found. These specimens are marked, placed in a paper bag,[111] and are marked for later analysis for the presence of seminal vesicle-specific antigen.[103][104]

Though technically, medical staff are not part of the legal system, only trained medical personnel can obtain evidence that is admissible during a trial. The procedures have been standardized. Evidence is collected, signed, and locked in a secure place to guarantee that legal evidence procedures are maintained. This carefully monitored procedure of evidence collection and preservation is known as the chain of evidence. Maintaining the chain of evidence from the medical examination, testing, and tissue sampling from its origin of collection to court allows the results of the sampling to be admitted as evidence.[109] Photography is often used for documentation.[112]

After the examination

Some physical effects of the rape are not immediately apparent. Follow up examinations also assess the patient for tension headaches, fatigue, sleep pattern disturbances, gastrointestinal irritability, chronic pelvic pain, menstrual pain or irregularity, pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual dysfunction, premenstrual distress, fibromyalgia, vaginal discharge, vaginal itching, burning during urination, and generalized vaginal pain.[106]

The World Health Organization recommends[113][114][115] offering prompt access to emergency contraceptive medications which can significantly reduce risk of an undesired pregnancy if used within 5 days of rape;[116] it is estimated that about 5% of male-on-female rapes result in pregnancy.[108] When rape results in pregnancy, abortion pills can be safely and effectively used to end a pregnancy up to 10 weeks from the last menstrual period.[117] In the US, federal funding is available to cover the cost of abortion services for pregnancies that occur as a result of rape, even in states that do not offer public-funding for abortion services.

Genital injuries

An internal pelvic exam is not recommended for sexually immature or prepubescent girls due to the probability that internal injuries do not exist in this age group. However, an internal exam may be recommended if significant bloody discharge is observed.[103] A complete pelvic exam for rape (anal or vaginal) is conducted. An oral exam is done if there have been injuries to the mouth, teeth, gums, or pharynx. Though the patient may have no complaints about genital pain signs of trauma can still be assessed. Before the complete bodily and genital exam, the patient is asked to undress, standing on a white sheet that collects any debris that may be in the clothing. The clothing and sheet are properly bagged and labeled along with other samples that can be removed from the body or clothing of the patient. Samples of fibers, mud, hair, or leaves are gathered if present. Samples of fluids are collected to determine the presence of the perpetrator's saliva and semen that may be present in the patients mouth, vagina or rectum. Sometimes the victim has scratched the perpetrator in defense and fingernail scrapings can be collected.[109]

Injuries to the genital areas can include swelling, lacerations, and bruising.[109][118] Common genital injuries are anal injury, labial abrasions, hymenal bruising, and tears of the posterior fourchette and fossa.[109] Bruises, tears, abrasions, inflammation and lacerations may be visible. If a foreign object was used during the assault, x-ray visualization will identify retained fragments.[119] Genital injuries are more prevalent in post-menopausal women and prepubescent girls. Internal injuries to the cervix and vagina can be visualized using colposcopy. Using colposcopy has increased the detection of internal trauma from six percent to fifty-three percent. Genital injuries to children who have been raped or sexually assaulted differ in that the abuse may be on-going or may have happened in the past after the injuries heal. Scarring is one sign of the sexual abuse of children.[109]

Several studies have explored the association between skin color and genital injury among rape victims. Many studies found a difference in rape-related injury based on race, with more injuries being reported for white females and males than for black females and males. This may be because the dark skin color of some victims obscures bruising. Examiners paying attention to victims with darker skin, especially the thighs, labia majora, posterior fourchette, and fossa navicularis, can help remedy this.[120]

Infections

The presence of a sexually contracted infection can not be confirmed after rape because it cannot be detected until 72 hours afterwards.[121]

The person who was raped may already have a sexually transmitted infection and if diagnosed, it is treated.[108][112] Prophylactic antibiotic treatment for vaginitis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and chlamydia may be performed. Chlamydial and gonococcal infections in women are of particular concern due to the possibility of ascending infection. Immunization against hepatitis B is often considered.[121][108][104] After prophylactic treatment is initiated, further testing is done to determine what other treatments may be necessary for other infections transmitted during the assault.[108] These are:

Treatment may include the administration of zidovudine/lamivudine, tenofovir/emtricitabine, or ritonavir/lopinavir. Information regarding other treatment options is available from the CDC.[109]

The transmission of HIV is frequently a major concern of the patient.[112] Prophylactic treatment for HIV is not necessarily administered. Routine treatment for HIV after rape or sexual assault is controversial due to the low risk of infection after one sexual assault. Transmission of HIV after one exposure to penetrative anal sex is estimated to be 0.5 to 3.2 percent. Transmission of HIV after one exposure to penetrative vaginal intercourse is 0.05 to 0.15 percent. HIV can also be contracted through the oral route but this is considered rare.[109][122] Other recommendations are that the patient be treated prophylactically for HIV if the perpetrator is found to be infected.[107]

Testing at the time of the initial exam does not typically have forensic value if patients are sexually active and have an STI since it could have been acquired before the assault. Rape shield laws protect the person who was raped and who has positive test results. These laws prevent having such evidence used against someone who was raped. Someone who was raped may be concerned that a prior infection may suggest sexual promiscuity. There may, however, be situations in which testing has a legal purpose, as in cases where the threat of transmission or actual transmission of an STI was part of the crime. In nonsexually active patients, an initial, baseline negative test that is followed by a subsequent STI could be used as evidence, if the perpetrator also had an STI.[112]

Treatment failure is possible due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens.[123]

Emotional and psychiatric

Psychiatric and emotional consequences can be apparent immediately after the rape and it may be necessary to treat these very early in the evaluation and treatment.[112] Other treatable emotional and psychiatric disorders may not become evident until some time after the rape. These can be Eating disorders, anxiety, fear, intrusive thoughts, fear of crowds, avoidance, anger, depression, humiliation, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) hyperarousal, sexual disorders (including fear of engaging in sexual activity), mood disorders, suicidal ideation, borderline personality disorder, nightmares, fear of situations that remind the patient of the rape and fear of being alone,[106] agitation, numbness and emotional distance.[109] Victims are able to receive help by using a telephone hotline, counseling, or shelters.[32] Recovery from sexual assault is a complicated and controversial concept,[124] but support groups, usually accessed by organizations are available to help in recovery. Professional counseling and ongoing treatment by trained health care providers are often sought by the victim.[125]

Some clinicians are specially trained in the treatment of those who have experienced rape and sexual assault/abuse. Treatment can be lengthy and challenging for both the counselor and the patient. Several treatment options exist and vary by accessibility, cost, or whether or not insurance coverage exists for the treatment. Treatment also varies depending upon the expertise of the counselor—some have more experience and or have specialized in the treatment of sexual trauma and rape. To be the most effective, a treatment plan should be developed based upon the struggles of the patient and not necessarily based upon the traumatic experience. An effective treatment plan will consider the following: current stressors, coping skills, physical health, interpersonal conflicts, self-esteem, family issues, involvement of the guardian, and the presence of mental health symptoms. [125]

The degree of success for emotional and psychiatric treatments is often dependent upon the terminology used in the treatment, i.e. redefining the event and experience. Labels used like rape victim and rape survivor to describe the new identities of women who have been raped suggest that the event is the dominant and controlling influence on her life. These may affect supportive personnel. The consequences of using these labels need to be assessed.[106] Positive outcomes of emotional and psychiatric treatment for rape exist; these can be an improved self-concept, the recognition of growth, and implementing new coping styles.[106]

A perpetrator found guilty by the court is often required to receive treatment. There are many options for treatment, some more successful than others.[126] The psychological factors that motivated the convicted perpetrator are complex but treatment can still be effective. A counselor will typically evaluate disorders that are currently present in the offender. Investigating the developmental background of the offender can help explain the origins of the abusive behavior that occurred in the first place. Emotional and psychological treatment has the purpose of identifying predictors of recidivism, or the potential that the offender will commit rape again. In some instances, neurological abnormalities have been identified in the perpetrators, and in some cases they have themselves experienced past trauma. Adolescents and other children can be the perpetrators of rape, although this is uncommon. In this instance, appropriate counseling and evaluation are usually conducted.[33]

Short-term treatment with a benzodiazepine may help with anxiety (although caution is recommended with the use of these medications as people can become addicted and develop withdrawal symptoms after regular use) and antidepressants may be helpful for symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder, depression and panic attacks.[108]

Prevention

As sexual violence affects all parts of society, the response to sexual violence is comprehensive. The responses can be categorized as individual approaches, healthcare responses, community-based efforts, and actions to prevent other forms of sexual violence.[127]

Sexual assault may be prevented by secondary school,[128] college,[129][130] and workplace education programs.[131] At least one program for fraternity men produced "sustained behavioral change."[129][132] With regard to campus sexual assault, nearly two thirds of students reported knowing victims of rape, and in one study over half reported knowing perpetrators of sexual assault; one in ten reported knowing a victim of rape; and nearly one in four reported knowing a victim of alcohol-facilitated rape.[133]

Statistics

International Crime on Statistics and Justice by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) find that worldwide, most victims of rape are women and most perpetrators male.[134] Rapes against women are rarely reported to the police and the number of female rape victims is significantly underestimated.[134] Southern Africa, Oceania, and North America report the highest numbers of rape.[134]

Most rape is committed by someone the victim knows.[135] By contrast, rape committed by strangers is relatively uncommon. Statistics reported by the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network (RAINN) indicate that 7 out of 10 cases of sexual assault involved a perpetrator known to the victim.[136]

The humanitarian news organization IRIN claims that an estimated "500,000 rapes are committed annually in South Africa[137] once called 'the world's rape capital.'[138] The country has some of the highest incidences of child sexual abuse in the world with more than 67,000 cases of rape and sexual assaults against children reported in 2000, with welfare groups believing that unreported incidents could be up to 10 times higher.[86] Current data suggest that the incidence of rape has risen significantly in India.[139]

Most rape research and reports of rape are limited to male–female forms of rape. Research on male-on-male and female-on-male rape is rare. Fewer than one in ten male-male rapes are reported. As a group, males who have been raped by either gender often get little services and support, and legal systems are often ill-equipped to deal with this type of crime. Instances in which the perpetrator is female may not be clear and can lead to dismissing women as sexual aggressors, which can obscure the dimensions of the problem. Research also suggests that men with sexually aggressive peers have a higher chance of reporting coercive or forced sexual intercourse outside gang circles than men without such sexually aggressive peers.[140]

Risk factors vary among different ethnicities in the United States. About one third of African American adolescent females report encountering some form of sexual assault including rape.[141] One in three Native American women will experience sexual assault, more than twice the national average for American women.[142]

Prosecution Reporting

In 2005, sexual violence, and rape in particular, was considered the most under-reported violent crime in Great Britain.[143] The number of reported rapes in Great Britain is lower than both incidence and prevalence rates.[144] Victims who do not act in an expected or stereotypical way may not be believed, as happened in the case of a Washington state woman raped in 2008 who withdrew her report after facing police skepticism.[145] Her rapist went on to assault several more women before being identified.[146]

The legal requirements for reporting rape vary by jurisdiction—each US state may have different requirements.[citation needed] New Zealand has less stringent limits.[147]

In Italy, a 2006 National Statistic Institute survey on sexual violence against women found that 91.6% of women who suffered this did not report it to the police.[148]

Conviction

In the United Kingdom, In 1970 there was a 33% rate of conviction, while by 1985 there was a 24 percent conviction rate for rape trials in the UK, by 2004 the conviction rate reached 5%.[149] At that time the government report has expressed documented the year-on-year increase in attrition of reported rape cases, and pledged to address this "justice gap".[143] According to Amnesty International Ireland had the lowest rate of conviction for rape, (1%) among 21 European states, in 2003.[150] In America as of 2012, there exists a noticeable discrepancy in conviction rates among women of various ethnic identities; an arrest was made in just 13% of the sexual assaults reported by American Indian women, compared with 35% for black women and 32% for whites.[142]

Judicial bias due to rape myths and preconceived notions about rape is a salient issue in rape conviction, but voir dire intervention may be used to curb such bias.[151]

False accusation

A false accusation of rape is the reporting of a rape where no rape has occurred. It is difficult to assess the true prevalence of false rape allegations, but it is generally agreed by scholars that rape accusations are false about 2% to 10% of the time.[152][153][154] In most cases, a false accusation will not name a specific suspect.[155]

Eight percent of 2,643 sexual assault cases were classified as false reports by the police in one study. The researchers noted that many of these classifications were based on the personal judgments and biases of the police investigators and were made in violation of official criteria for establishing a false allegation. Closer analysis of this category applying the Home Office counting rules for establishing a false allegation, which requires "strong evidential grounds" of a false allegation or a "clear and credible" retraction by the complainant, reduced the percentage of false reports to 3%. The researchers concluded that "one cannot take all police designations at face value" and that "[t]here is an over-estimation of the scale of false allegations by both police officers and prosecutors".[156]

Another large-scale study was conducted in Australia, with 850 rapes reported to the Victoria police between 2000 and 2003 (Heenan & Murray, 2006). Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the researchers examined 812 cases and found 15.1% of complaints were withdrawn, 46.4% were marked "no further police action", and 2.1% of the total were "clearly" classified by police as false reports. The researchers noted that where the police found a case to be a false allegation but did not want to pursue charges against the accuser, they marked it as "no further police action" instead. All of these complainants were then charged or threatened with charges for filing a false police report.[157]

In the United Kingdom, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) analyzed every rape complaint made over a 17-month period and found that "the indication is that it is therefore extremely rare that a suspect deliberately makes a false allegation of rape or domestic violence purely out of malice."[158][159]

FBI reports consistently put the number of "unfounded" rape accusations around 8%. The unfounded rate is higher for forcible rape than for any other Index crime. The average rate of unfounded reports for Index crimes is 2%.[160] "Unfounded" is not synonymous with a false allegation.[161] Bruce Gross of the Forensic Examiner described it as meaningless, saying a report could be marked as unfounded if there is no physical evidence or the alleged victim did not sustain any physical injuries.

Other studies have suggested that the rate of false allegations in the United States may be higher. A nine-year study by Eugene J. Kanin of Purdue University in a small metropolitan area in the Midwestern United States claimed that 41% of rape accusations were false.[162] However David Lisak, an associate professor of psychology and director of the Men's Sexual Trauma Research Project at the University of Massachusetts Boston states that "Kanin's 1994 article on false allegations is a provocative opinion piece, but it is not a scientific study of the issue of false reporting of rape". He further states that Kanin's study has a significantly poor systematic methodology and had no independent definition of a false report. Instead, Kanin classified reports that the police department classified as false also as false.[163] The criterion for falsehood was simply a denial of a polygraph test of the accuser.[162] A 1998 report by the National Institute of Justice found that DNA evidence excluded the primary suspect in 26% of rape cases and concluded that this "strongly suggests that postarrest and postconviction DNA exonerations are tied to some strong, underlying systemic problems that generate erroneous accusations and convictions".[164] However, this study also noted that analyzed samples involved a specific subset of rape cases (e.g. those where "there is no consent defense").

A 2010 study by David Lisak, Lori Gardinier and other researchers published in the journal of Violence against Women found that out of 136 cases reported in a ten-year period, 5.9% were found likely to be false.[154] A 2018 study in the UK by Lesley McMillan published in the Journal of Gender Studies found that although police estimated 5–95% of rape claims were likely to be false, the analysis showed no more than 3–4% were possible to be evidenced as "fabricated'.[165]

History Definitions and evolution of laws

Virtually all societies have had a concept of the crime of rape. Although what constituted this crime has varied by historical period and culture, the definitions tended to focus around an act of forced vaginal intercourse perpetrated through physical violence or imminent threat of death or severe bodily injury, by a man, on a woman, or a girl, not his wife. The actus reus of the crime, was, in most societies, the insertion of the penis into the vagina.[166][167] The way sexuality was conceptualized in many societies rejected the very notion that a woman could force a man into sex — women were often seen as passive while men were deemed to be assertive and aggressive. Sexual penetration of a male by another male fell under the legal domain of sodomy.

Rape laws existed to protect virginal daughters from rape. In these cases, a rape done to a woman was seen as an attack on the estate of her father because she was his property and a woman's virginity being taken before marriage lessened her value; if the woman was married, the rape was an attack on the husband because it violated his property.[168][169] The rapist was either subject to payment (see wreath money) or severe punishment.[169][170][171] The father could rape or keep the rapist's wife or make the rapist marry his daughter.[168][171] A man could not be charged with raping his wife since she was his property. Thus, marital rape was allowed.[169][172] Author Winnie Tomm stated, "By contrast, rape of a single woman without strong ties to a father or husband caused no great concern."[170] An incident could be excluded from the definition of rape due to the relation between the parties, such as marriage, or due to the background of the victim. In many cultures forced sex on a prostitute, slave, war enemy, member of a racial minority, etc., was not rape.[173]

From the classical antiquity of Greece and Rome into the Colonial period, rape along with arson, treason and murder was a capital offense. "Those committing rape were subject to a wide range of capital punishments that were seemingly brutal, frequently bloody, and at times spectacular." In the 12th century, kinsmen of the victim were given the option of executing the punishment themselves. "In England in the early fourteenth century, a victim of rape might be expected to gouge out the eyes and/or sever the offender's testicles herself."[174] Despite the harshness of these laws, actual punishments were usually far less severe: in late Medieval Europe, cases concerning rapes of marriageable women, wives, widows, or members of the lower class were rarely brought forward, and usually ended with only a small monetary fine or a marriage between the victim and the rapist.[175]

In ancient Greece and Rome, both male-on-female and male-on-male concepts of rape existed. Roman laws allowed three distinct charges for the crime: stuprum, unsanctioned sexual intercourse (which, in the early times, also included adultery); vis, a physical assault for purpose of lust; and iniuria, a general charge denoting any type of assault upon a person. The aforementioned Lex Iulia specifically criminalized per vim stuprum, unsanctioned sexual intercourse by force. The former two were public criminal charges which could be brought whenever the victim was a woman or a child of either gender, but only if the victim was a freeborn Roman citizen (ingenuus), and carried a potential sentence of death or exile. Iniuria was a civil charge that demanded monetary compensation, and had a wider application (for example, it could have been brought in case of sexual assault on a slave by a person other than their owner.) Augustus Caesar enacted reforms for the crime of rape under the assault statute Lex Iulia de vi publica, which bears his family name, Iulia. It was under this statute rather than the adultery statute of Lex Iulia de adulteriis that Rome prosecuted this crime.[176] Rape was made into a "public wrong" (iniuria publica) by the Roman Emperor Constantine.[177][178]

In contrast to the modern understanding of the subject, Romans drew clear distinctions between "active" (penetrative) and "passive" (receptive) partners, and all these charges implied penetration by the assailant (which necessarily ruled out the possibility of female-on-male or female-on-female rape.) It is not clear which (if any) of these charges applied to assaults upon an adult male, though such an assault upon a citizen was definitely seen as a grave insult (within Roman culture, an adult male citizen could not possibly consent to the receptive role in sexual intercourse without a severe loss of status.) The law known as Lex Scantinia covered at least some forms of male-on-male stuprum, and Quintillian mentions a fine of 10,000 sesterces – about 10 years worth of a Roman legionnaire's pay – as a normal penalty for stuprum upon an ingenuus. However, its text is lost and its exact provisions are no longer known.[179]

Emperor Justinian continued the use of the statute to prosecute rape during the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire.[180] By late antiquity, the general term raptus had referred to abduction, elopement, robbery, or rape in its modern meaning. Confusion over the term led ecclesiastical commentators on the law to differentiate it into raptus seductionis (elopement without parental consent) and raptus violentiae (ravishment). Both of these forms of raptus had a civil penalty and possible excommunication for the family and village receiving the abducted woman, although raptus violentiae also incurred punishments of mutilation or death.[181]

In the United States, a husband could not be charged with raping his wife until 1979.[182] In the 1950s, in some states in the US, a white woman having consensual sex with a black man was considered rape.[183] Prior to the 1930s, rape was considered a sex crime that was always committed by men and always done to women. From 1935 to 1965, a shift from labeling rapists as criminals to believing them to be mentally ill "sexual psychopaths" began making its way into popular opinion. Men caught for committing rape were no longer sentenced to prison but admitted to mental health hospitals where they would be given medication for their illness.[184] Because only men deemed insane were the ones considered to have committed rape, no one considered the everyday person to be capable of such violence.[184]

Transitions in women's roles in society were also shifting, causing alarm and blame towards rape victims. Because women were becoming more involved in the public (i.e. searching for jobs rather than being a housewife), some people claimed that these women were "loose" and looking for trouble. Giving up the gender roles of mother and wife was seen as defiant against traditional values while immersing themselves within society created the excuse that women would "not [be] entitled to protection under the traditional guidelines for male-female relationships".[184]

Until the 19th century, many jurisdictions required ejaculation for the act to constitute the offense of rape.[166][185] Acts other than vaginal intercourse did not constitute rape in common law countries and in many other societies. In many cultures, such acts were illegal, even if they were consensual and performed between married couples (see sodomy laws). In England, for example, the Buggery Act 1533, which remained in force until 1828, provided for the death penalty for "buggery". Many countries criminalized "non-traditional" forms of sexual activity well into the modern era: notably, in the US state of Idaho, sodomy between consensual partners was punishable by a term of five years to life in prison as late as 2003, and this law was only ruled to be inapplicable to married couples in 1995.[186] Today, in many countries, the definition of the actus reus has been extended to all forms of penetration of the vagina and anus (e.g. penetration with objects, fingers or other body parts) as well as insertion of the penis in the mouth.

In the United States, before and during the American Civil War when chattel slavery was widespread, the law focused primarily on rape as it pertained to black men raping white women. The penalty for such a crime in many jurisdictions was death or castration. The rape of a black woman, by any man, was considered legal.[184] As early as the 19th century, American women were criticized if they "stray[ed] out of a [dependent] position...fought off [an] attacker...[or] behaved in too self reliant a manner..." in which case "the term rape no longer applied".[187]

In 1998, Judge Navanethem Pillay of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda said: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war."[188]

In Aydin v Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) ruled for the first time that rape amounts to torture, thus violating article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights. It stated, "Rape of a detainee by an official of the State must be considered to be an especially grave and abhorrent form of ill-treatment given the ease with which the offender can exploit the vulnerability and weakened resistance of his victim."[189]

In M.C. v Bulgaria, the Court found that the use of violence on the part of the perpetrator is not a necessary condition for a sexual act to be qualified as rape. It stated, "Indeed, rapists often employ subtle coercion or bullying when this is sufficient to overcome their victims. In most cases of rape against children, violence is not necessary to obtain submission. Courts are also recognizing that some women become frozen with fear at the onset of a sexual attack and thus cannot resist."[190]

War rape

Rape, in the course of war, dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the Bible.[191] The Israelite, Persian, Greek and Roman armies reportedly engaged in war rape.[192] When Amazon's Yanomami tribes fought and raided nearby tribes, women were often raped and brought back to the shabono to be adopted into the captor's community.[193]

The Mongols, who established the Mongol Empire across much of Eurasia, caused much destruction during their invasions.[194] Historian Jack Weatherford said that the earliest incident of mass rape attributed to Mongols took place after Ogodei Khan sent an army of 25,000 soldiers to North China, where they defeated an army of 100,000. The Mongols were said to have raped the surviving soldiers at the command of their leader. Ogodei Khan was also said to have ordered mass rapes of the Oirat.[195] According to Rogerius of Apulia, a monk who survived the Mongol invasion of Hungary, the Mongol warriors "found pleasure" in humiliating local women.[196]

The systematic rape of as many as 80,000 women by the Japanese soldiers during the six weeks of the Nanking Massacre is an example of such atrocities.[197] During World War II an estimated 200,000 Korean and Chinese women were forced into prostitution in Japanese military brothels, as so-called "comfort women".[198] French Moroccan troops known as Goumiers committed rapes and other war crimes after the Battle of Monte Cassino. (See Marocchinate.)[199] French women in Normandy complained about rapes during the liberation of Normandy.[200]

Rapes were committed by Wehrmacht forces on Jewish women and girls during the Invasion of Poland in September 1939;[201] they were also committed against Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian women, and girls during mass executions which were primarily carried out by the Selbstschutz units, with the assistance of Wehrmacht soldiers who were stationed in territory that was under the administration of the German military; the rapes were committed against female captives before they were shot.[202] Only one case of rape was prosecuted by a German court during the military campaign in Poland, and even then the German judge found the perpetrator guilty of Rassenschande (committing a shameful act against his race as defined by the racial policy of Nazi Germany), rather than rape.[203] Jewish women were particularly vulnerable to rape during The Holocaust.[204]

Rapes were also committed by German forces stationed on the Eastern Front, where they were largely unpunished (as opposed to rapes committed in Western Europe).[205][206] The Wehrmacht also established a system of military brothels, in which young women and girls from occupied territories were forced into prostitution under harsh conditions.[207] In the Soviet Union women were kidnapped by German forces for prostitution as well; one report by the International Military Tribunal writes "in the city of Smolensk the German Command opened a brothel for officers in one of the hotels into which hundreds of women and girls were driven; they were mercilessly dragged down the street by their arms and hair."[208]

Rapes happened in territories occupied by the Red Army. A female Soviet war correspondent described what she had witnessed: "The Russian soldiers were raping every German female from eight to eighty. It was an army of rapists."[209] According to German historian Miriam Gebhardt, as many as 190,000 women were raped by U.S. soldiers in Germany.[210]

According to researcher and author Krisztian Ungvary, some 38,000 civilians were killed during the Siege of Budapest: about 13,000 from military action and 25,000 from starvation, disease and other causes. Included in the latter figure are about 15,000 Jews, largely victims of executions by Hungarian Arrow Cross Party militia. When the Soviets finally claimed victory, they initiated an orgy of violence, including the wholesale theft of anything they could lay their hands on, random executions and mass rape. An estimated 50,000 women and girls were raped,[211]

: 348–350 

[212][note 1] although estimates vary from 5,000 to 200,000.[213] Hungarian girls were kidnapped and taken to Red Army quarters, where they were imprisoned, repeatedly raped and sometimes murdered.[214]

: 70–71 

See also Notes References Further reading External links


image of Rape Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster

Rape Definition & Meaning - Merriam-Webster

The meaning of RAPE is unlawful sexual activity and usually sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of injury against a person's will or with a person who is beneath a certain age or incapable of valid consent because of mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception.The meaning of RAPE is unlawful sexual activity and usually sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of injury against a person's will or with a person who is beneath a certain age or incapable of valid consent because of mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception..
From: www.merriam-webster.com

: unlawful sexual activity and usually sexual intercourse carried out forcibly or under threat of injury against a person's will or with a person who is beneath a certain age or incapable of valid consent because of mental illness, mental deficiency, intoxication, unconsciousness, or deception

: an Old World herb (Brassica napus) of the mustard family grown as a forage crop and for its seeds which yield rapeseed

History and Etymology for rape

Noun (1)

Middle English, "violent seizure, abduction of a woman with the intent of sexually assaulting her," borrowed from Anglo-French rap, rape, probably borrowed from Medieval Latin rapum, noun derivative of rapio, rapere "to seize and carry off, abduct a woman with the intent of sexually assaulting her" — more at rape entry 2

Note: Use of this word in its most predominant modern meaning is attested early in legal Anglo-French and British Medieval Latin, though the precise derivational pathways are uncertain. The Latin word may have been based on the Anglo-French word, but both must ultimately be dependent on the classical Latin verb. Note that rapum exists alongside classical Latin raptus, the regularly derived u-stem verbal noun, used in British Medieval Latin in the sense "rape." Compare ravish.

Middle English rapen "to abduct a woman with the intent of sexually assaulting her," borrowed from Anglo-French raper, borrowed from Medieval Latin rapio, rapere "to seize and carry off, abduct a woman with of the intent of sexually assaulting her," going back to Latin, "to seize and carry off, take away by force, carry off a woman with the intent of sexually assaulting her, carry or sweep along, impel forcibly (to a course of conduct), snatch up, gather quickly" — more at rapid entry 1

Note: The verb rapen in its predominant modern sense is rare in Middle English, the more common verb meaning "to rape" being ravisshen "to ravish." The Middle English Dictionary lists rapen with a meaning "to carry off, transport (the soul to heaven)," but all forms cited are for a past participle rapt, rapte, which appears to have been borrowed directly from Medieval Latin raptus, past participle of rapere in this sense (see rapt). See also the note at rape entry 1.

Noun (2)

Middle English, "turnip, Brassica napus," borrowed from Latin rapa, rapum "turnip"; akin to Germanic *robjon- "turnip" (whence Middle Dutch & Middle Low German rove, Old High German ruoba, ruoppa), Lithuanian rope, Greek rhaphys, rhapys (all going back to an earlier *rap(h)-), Church Slavic (eastern) repa, Polish rzepa (going back to *rep-), Welsh erfin "turnips, rape," Breton irvin (going back to *arb-ino-, perhaps metathesized from *rab-), all from a substratal pre-Indo-European word of uncertain form

Note: The Greek forms with fluctuating aspiration, as well as the derivative rhaphanos "any of various cultivars of Brassica oleracea, radish," with the suffix -anos, argue for membership in the same pre-Greek substratum as a number of other Greek words; whether the other European forms are borrowed from this etymon or are part of a more general substratum is unclear (see Robert Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2010, p. 1277). Not related to Old Norse rofa "tail" (see Guus Kroonen, Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic, Brill, 2013, p. 415).

Noun (3)

French rape grape stalk


image of What is Rape? Was I Raped? | HealthyPlace

What is Rape? Was I Raped? | HealthyPlace

Rape is a heinous act performed when one party wishes to exact complete power and control over another. The definition of rape, according to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network is: 1". . . forced sexual intercourse, including vaginal, anal, or oral penetration.Rape is a crime of power that can be perpetrated against anyone. Learn the definition of rape and the answer to: was I raped?.
Keyword: rape, was I raped, definition of rape, rape definition, I was raped
From: www.healthyplace.com

Rape is a heinous act performed when one party wishes to exact complete power and control over another. The definition of rape, according to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network is:1

Rape is often known as "sexual assault" or "sexual abuse," particularly in the law. However, sexual assault and sexual abuse are defined more broadly whereas the term rape specifies intercourse.

Threats of violence or weapons may be used during rape but in about 8-out-of-10 cases, nothing but physical force is used. Weapons or threats are not required for an act to be considered rape.

It is important to know that either gender can be the perpetrator or the victim of rape. Additionally, both heterosexual and homosexual rapes take place both inside and outside of relationships. It's critical to understand that rape is never okay and that no matter the circumstance, rape is never the victim's fault.

Sexual Assault

It's also important to know that sexual activities short of rape performed without consent are also a crime. These crimes are generally known as "sexual assault." Sexual assault is defined as the following, according to the Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network:

Was I Raped?

Some victims of rape wonder about their specific circumstance and wonder if it constitutes rape. Chances are if you're wondering, "was I raped?" you probably were. Rape happens any time sexual intercourse takes place without your consent. Note that many circumstances can indicate your lack of consent including:

And, of course, any time you say, "no" to intercourse and it is forced on you, that is rape. It doesn't matter if you said "no" in the middle of the act, it is still rape if the other party doesn't immediately stop and respect your wishes. You have the right to rescind consent at any time, under any circumstances.

Sometimes it is considered rape even if you do not say, "no" such as in the case where a weapon is used. Sometimes you are too concerned for your life or safety to say, "no." This is still considered rape. Threats against others may also constitute too grave a threat.

It still is considered rape even if:

It is critical to remember that rape can happen to anyone in many situations but it is never the victim's fault – it is always the fault of the rapist.

article references


image of Video shows crowd do nothing as girl is gang-raped on ...

Video shows crowd do nothing as girl is gang-raped on ...

Video: Two men are jailed for 10 years after raping a woman on a Florida beach in broad daylight as hundreds of bystanders did nothing. A video showing a gang-rape on Panama City Beach in …A video showing a gang-rape on Panama City Beach in Florida has led to the arrests of two Troy University students Delonte Martistee and Ryan Calhoun..
From: www.dailymail.co.uk

A video showing a gang-rape on Panama City Beach in Florida has led to the arrests of two Troy University students Delonte Martistee and Ryan Calhoun.

Share this video: Video shows crowd do nothing as girl is gang-raped on beach


image of 30 Horrific Rape Cases Happened In 2019 | 30 Brutal Recent ...

30 Horrific Rape Cases Happened In 2019 | 30 Brutal Recent ...

Here's a list of some of the most horrific rape cases that have already been recorded in the first half of 2019. 1. A 16-year-old girl was gang-raped for 5 days in Andhra Pradesh. Source: India ...Where are we headed? Here's a list of some of the most horrific rape cases that were already been recorded in the first half of 2019..
From: www.scoopwhoop.com

While doing research for this article, I was horrified to see that there was no dearth of rape cases in India in the first half of this year alone. The fact that I could find one news related to rape cases every day is enough to make us ponder where we, as a country, are heading.

Here's a list of some of the most horrific rape cases that have already been recorded in the first half of 2019.

1. A 16-year-old girl was gang-raped for 5 days in Andhra Pradesh. 2. A 19-year-old girl from Bihar was allegedly gang-raped by 6 men in front of her father. 3. A 12-year-old Dalit girl was allegedly raped and then beheaded by her 3 brothers and uncle in Madhya Pradesh's Sagar district. 4. A 4-year-old girl was raped in Aligarh after the accused lured her with ₹10 note and took her to a secluded spot. 5. A 11-year-old girl was raped and murdered in Unnao and her body was found lying in an orchard. 6. A 3-year-old girl was allegedly raped by her 11-year-old neighbour in Dehradun when the girl's parents were not at home. 7. A 13-year-old girl was raped by 2 men at her home in Shahjahanpur when her parents had gone out to purchase medicines. 8. 3 sex workers were allegedly raped by 9 men at a farm house in Noida. 9. A 9-month-old girl was raped in Telangana after the man took her to a secluded place in the wee hours. 10. A minor girl was raped inside her residence in Kolkata when her parents were not at home. 11. A 43-year-old mentally challenged woman was raped by a social worker in Mumbai. 12. A 4-year-old girl was raped in a private school in Punjab. 13. A 17-year-old deaf and dumb girl was allegedly raped by 3 men in Rampur who also filmed the act. 14. A 15-year-old girl was raped by her father in Jajpur district of Odisha. 15. An air hostess was allegedly raped by her colleague after she passed out while having drinks with him. 16. A 3-year-old girl was raped in Bandipora, J&K during the holy month of Ramzan after the accused lured her with a candy. 17. A woman in UP was repeatedly raped for days after she was sold off by her father. 18. A 16-year-old girl was kidnapped, confined and raped by 3 men in Noida for 51 days. 19. A woman was raped, beaten, videotaped and blackmailed in Alwar when she went out with her husband for shopping. 20. A 9-year-old girl was raped and killed in Vile Parle, Mumbai. 21. A married woman was gang-raped by 3 men in Bikaner when she went to collect firewood. 22. A 6-year-old girl was raped and murdered by a drunk teenager in a Hyderabad village after she went missing while playing Holi. 23. A 16-year-old girl was raped at gunpoint In UP's Shamli district when she went out to relieve herself. 24. A 7-year-old girl was raped and murdered in Kannauj after being abducted from a temple near her house. 25. A 13-year-old girl was raped by her father in Gurugram after he had a fight with his wife. 26. A woman was repeatedly gang-raped at a farm house in Ludhiana after she and her husband were abducted, looted and beaten up. 27. A 5-year-old girl was raped and murdered in Mumbai after being abducted while sleeping with her family in a pavement shack. 28. An engineering student was allegedly raped and murdered in Raichur. 29. A 4-year-old girl was raped and murdered after being kidnapped from a slum in Indore. 30. A 5-year-old girl was raped & murdered by her neighbour after he took the girl with him for a puja.

And mind you, this isn't an exhaustive list of the gruesome crime that is committed almost every day in our country. There are hundred others which go unreported and unregistered.


image of Types of rape - Wikipedia

Types of rape - Wikipedia

The term "date rape" is used to refer to several types of rape, broadly acquaintance rape, which is a non-domestic rape committed by someone who knows the victim, and drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), where the rapist intentionally drugs the victim with a date rape drug so that they are incapacitated. Acquaintance rape constitutes the vast majority of reported rapes, while ….
From: en.wikipedia.org

Various types of this form of sexual assault

Rape can be categorized in different ways: for example, by reference to the situation in which it occurs, by the identity or characteristics of the victim, and by the identity or characteristics of the perpetrator. These categories are referred to as types of rape. The types described below are not mutually exclusive: a given rape can fit into multiple categories, by for example being both a prison rape and a gang rape, or both a custodial rape and the rape of a child.

Date rape[edit]

The term "date rape" is used to refer to several types of rape, broadly acquaintance rape, which is a non-domestic rape committed by someone who knows the victim,[1] and drug facilitated sexual assault (DFSA), where the rapist intentionally drugs the victim with a date rape drug so that they are incapacitated. Acquaintance rape constitutes the vast majority of reported rapes, while DFSA is infrequent. A frequently overlapping category is incapacitated rape, where the victim is incapacitated and unable to give consent – this is often the result of intoxication, but can also simply be because the victim is asleep or has a medical condition. DFSA is when the rapist intentionally incapacitates the victim via drugs, while acquaintance rape can occur when the victim is not incapacitated.

Acquaintance rape can occur between two people who know one another usually in social situations, between people who are dating as a couple and have had consensual sex in the past, between two people who are starting to date, between people who are just friends, and between acquaintances. They include rapes of co-workers, schoolmates, family, friends, teachers and other acquaintances, providing they are dating;[2] it is sometimes referred to as "hidden rape" and has been identified as a growing problem in western society.[3] A college survey conducted by the United States' National Victim Center reported that one in four college women have been raped or experienced attempted rape.[4] This report indicates that young women are at considerable risk of becoming a victim of date rape while in college. In addition, there have been reported incidents of colleges questioning accounts of alleged victims, further complicating documentation and policing of student assaults, despite such preventive legislation as the Clery Act.[5][6]

Gang rape[edit]

Gang rape occurs when a group of people participate in the rape of a single victim. Rape involving two or more violators (usually at least three[7]) is widely reported to occur in many parts of the world. Systematic information on the extent of the problem, however, is scant.

One study showed that offenders and victims in gang rape incidents were younger with a higher possibility of being unemployed. Gang rapes involved more alcohol and other drug use, night attacks and severe sexual assault outcomes and less victim resistance and fewer weapons than individual rapes.[8] Another study found that group sexual assaults were more violent and had greater resistance from the victim than individual sexual assaults and that victims of group sexual assaults were more likely to seek crisis and police services, contemplate suicide, and seek therapy than those involved in individual assaults. The two groups were about the same in the amount of drinking and other drug use during the assault.[9]

Spousal rape[edit]

Spousal rape also known as marital rape, wife rape, husband rape, partner rape or intimate partner sexual assault (IPSA), is rape between a married or de facto couple without one spouse's consent. Spousal rape is considered a form of domestic violence and sexual abuse. Research reveals that there are no significant difference in post-psychiatric disorders (depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and sexual dysfunction) when comparing victims of marital/partner, date, and stranger rape.[10] A following study comparing marital and stranger rape victims also discovered that both types of victims experienced related types and levels of post-trauma distress.[10]

Historically, research has shown that often women do not believe that non-consensual sexual acts within a marriage constitutes as rape.[11] From 1994 to 2010, in the United States, there was an overall decline of intimate partner violence of 63% in female victims and a decline of 64% in male victims.[12]

Rape of children[edit]

Rape of a child is a form of child sexual abuse. When committed by another child (usually older or stronger) or adolescent, it is called child-on-child sexual abuse. When committed by a parent or other close relatives such as grandparents, aunts and uncles, it is also incest and can result in serious and long-term psychological trauma.[13] When a child is raped by an adult who is not a family member but is a caregiver or in a position of authority over the child, such as school teachers, religious authorities, sports trainers (coaches) or therapists, to name a few, on whom the child is dependent, the effects can be similar to incestual rape.

Statutory rape[edit]

National and regional governments, citing an interest in protecting "young people" (variously defined but sometimes synonymous with minors) from sexual exploitation, treat any sexual contact with such a person as an offense (not always categorized as "rape"), even if he or she agrees to or initiates the sexual activity.

The offense is often based on the fact that people under a certain age do not have the capacity to give consent. The age at which individuals are considered competent to give consent, called the age of consent, varies in different countries and regions; in the US, the age ranges from 16 to 18. Sexual activity that violates age-of-consent law, but is neither violent nor physically coerced, is sometimes described as "statutory rape", a legally-recognized category in the United States. Most states, however, allow persons younger than the age of consent to engage in sexual activity if the age difference between the partners is small; these are called close-in-age exemptions or a Romeo and Juliet exemption and even in countries where there is no official legal exemption prosecutions are infrequent.

Prison rape[edit]

Rates of prison rape have been reported as affecting between 3% and 12% of prison inmates in the US.[14] Although prison rapes are more commonly same-sex crimes (since prisons are usually separated by sex), the attacker usually does not identify as homosexual.[15] This phenomenon is much less common elsewhere in the western world. This is partly because of the differences in the structure of the prison system in the US as compared to the prison systems in Canada, Australia and Europe.

Statistically, there is a higher prevalence of mentally-ill individuals who are in prisons, instead of psychiatric facilities. These individuals are part of a high-risk group for sexual assault, as according to the NPREC, 12-13% of rape instances involves an individual who is mentally ill; 8 times more than the non-mentally ill prison population rape instances.[16]

The attacker is most commonly another inmate.[17]

Serial rape[edit]

Serial rape is rape committed by a person over a relatively long period of time and committed on a number of victims. Most times this type of rapist is unknown to the victim and follows a specific and predictable pattern of targeting and assaulting victims.

A nationwide sample of serial rape cases that were reported to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) were analyzed and it was found that serial rapists showed a "high degree of criminal sophistication" and used less force against the victim. The more criminally sophisticated the rapist was the more sexual acts were performed.[18] A perpetrator that has criminal sophistication means that the perpetrator is more likely to remove any evidence that might assist enforcement in their investigation. For example, fingerprints, semen, and weapons.[19]

Payback rape[edit]

"Payback rape", also called "punishment rape" or "revenge rape", is a form of rape specific to certain cultures, particularly the Pacific Islands. It consists of the rape of a female, usually by a group of several males, as revenge for acts committed by members of her family, such as her father or brothers. The rape is meant to humiliate and bring shame upon the father or brothers, as punishment for their prior behavior towards the perpetrators.[20] Payback rape is sometimes connected to tribal fighting.[21]

War rape[edit]

War rapes are rapes committed by soldiers, other combatants or civilians during armed conflict or war, or during military occupation. It also covers the situation where girls and women are forced into prostitution or sexual slavery by an occupying power.[citation needed]

During war, rape is often used as a means of psychological warfare in order to humiliate the enemy and undermine their morale. Rapes in war are often systematic and thorough, and military leaders may actually encourage their soldiers to rape civilians. Likewise, systematic rapes are often employed as a form of ethnic cleansing.[citation needed]

War rape has been considered a war crime only since 1949. Article 27 of the Fourth Geneva Convention explicitly prohibits wartime rape and enforced prostitution. These prohibitions were reinforced by the 1977 Additional Protocols to the 1949 Geneva Conventions.[22] Therefore, during the post-war Nuremberg Trials and Tokyo Trials, mass war rape was not prosecuted as a war crime.

In 1998, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda established by the United Nations made landmark decisions that rape is a crime of genocide under international law. In one judgement, Navanethem Pillay said: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war."[23]

The word rape only began to be used to refer to sexual assault in the early 15th century, and its dominant usage remained to refer to abduction and robbery without any connotation of sexual assault until the modern period. Many classical references to rape during war do not refer explicitly to instances of sexual assault, but rather to the practice of abducting the women or property of the enemy during warfare.[24]

Rape by deception[edit]

Rape by deception occurs when the perpetrator gains the victim's agreement through fraud. In one case, a man pretended to be an official for a government who had power to cause negative impacts on a woman to pressure a woman into sexual activities. The courts held that he had falsely represented himself and thus used deception against the woman.[citation needed]

Corrective rape[edit]

Corrective rape is targeted rape against non-heterosexuals as a "punishment for violating gender roles".[25][26] It is a form of hate crime against LGBT individuals, mainly lesbians, in which the rapist justifies the act as an acceptable response to the victim's perceived sexual or gender orientation and a form of punishment for being gay.[25][26] Often, the stated argument of the corrective rapist is that the rape will turn the person straight, "correcting" their sex or gender, i.e. make them conform to societal norms.[25][26][27] The term was first coined in South Africa after well-known cases of corrective rape, such as that of sports star Eudy Simelane, became public.[28]

Custodial rape[edit]

Custodial rape is rape perpetrated by a person employed by the state in a supervisory or custodial position, such as a police officer, public servant or jail or hospital employee.[29][30][31] It includes the rape of children in institutional care such as orphanages.[32]

Custodial rape has been reported in India, Pakistan,[33] Bangladesh,[citation needed] Malaysia,[34] Sri Lanka,[35] Iran,[36] Cambodia,[36] Nigeria,[36] Kenya,[36] Zambia[37] and the United States.[37]

In India custodial rape has been a major focus of women's rights organizations, and has been an official category of rape defined under law since 1983. Indian law says this type of rape takes advantage of the rapist's position of authority and is therefore subject to extra penalty.[38][39]

The term custodial rape is sometimes used broadly to include rape by anyone in a position of authority such as an employer, money-lender, contractor or landlord, but under Indian law it refers only to government employees.[40] Victims of custodial rape are frequently minorities, people who are poor, or low-status for example because of their caste.[36] Researchers say custodial rape is part of a broader pattern of custodial abuse, which can also include torture and murder.[41]

Perpetrator types[edit]

Nicholas Groth has described three types of rape, based on the goal of the rapist. This includes the anger rapist, power rapist and sadistic rapist.[42] According to Howard Barbaree, a psychologist at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, most rapes are impulsive and opportunistic, and committed by people who may commit other impulsive acts, including impulsive crimes. These rapists tend to show no anger except in response to their victim's resistance, and use little unnecessary force.

Further classification[edit]

As mentioned above, when differing acts of rape are defined and typified, whether by popular convention, research of the subject, or otherwise, the results are often neither exclusive nor exhaustive in scope. Some instances may fit two or more definitions, while others may remain as yet undefined. One example of this are the following sub-classifications created by American researcher Patricia Rozee:[43][44]

Where they are not already typed above, many of these otherwise distinct forms could equally apply to other classifications (e.g. prison rape that is also punitive rape, war rape that is also theft rape, etc.)

See also[edit] References[edit]


image of I was 14 when I was gang raped | Gender | The Guardian

I was 14 when I was gang raped | Gender | The Guardian

In October 1985, I attended a pop concert against my parents' wishes. By the end of the night I had been gang raped in circumstances similar to those alleged by the 17-year-old girl accusing ...In October 1985, I attended a pop concert against my parents' wishes. By the end of the night I had been gang raped in circumstances similar to those alleged by the 17-year-old girl accusing several men, including Premiership footballers, of raping her at the Grosvenor House hotel. By Emilia di Girolamo..
From: www.theguardian.com

In October 1985, I attended a pop concert against my parents' wishes. By the end of the night I had been gang raped in circumstances similar to those alleged by the 17-year-old girl accusing several men, including Premiership footballers, of raping her at the Grosvenor House hotel. The men who raped me weren't celebrities and they weren't even rich. In reality they were nobodies. But to me, a 14-year-old girl, only 4ft 11in tall, with very limited experience of the world, they were glamour personified.

The men, who were about six years older than me, were in a pop band, playing village halls and occasional support slots to bigger bands. They talked about a world I knew nothing of, a glamorous world of recording studios and record contracts. Their faces pouted out of photo- graphs in the local paper. They were local celebrities. They were a gang with catchphrases I didn't understand, mostly referring to sex acts, and little hand signals that my best friend and I emulated and giggled over in the playground at lunchtime.

That night, I watched them on the stage high above me and when they smiled at me, pointed me out and waved, I felt grown-up and glamorous, and important. I had been seeing one of them, Liam, for three weeks and had met Phil and Simon once or twice. Liam asked me to arrange to stay out the night of the concert. He suggested I lie to my parents and say I was at a girlfriend's house, so we could "spend the whole night together". I would have done anything he asked because I had fallen in love with this man who spoke of grown-up things, who said, "I can't believe you're only 14, you look so much older" - though the photos I gaze at now tell me that I didn't. He also told me that he couldn't believe I was a virgin when I first met him. Couldn't believe his luck, more like.

So I arranged my alibi and went to the concert. I wasn't plied with champagne but with cheap vodka. I didn't drink much of it and certainly wasn't drunk. I was never a teenage drinker. After the concert, the men were on a high, enjoying the attention of their groupies. I waited while they circulated for half an hour and then they came over to me. Liam asked if I had made the arrangement to stay out. I said yes and he shuffled me out of the door quickly, followed by the others.

Liam asked if I would like to stay at Simon's house where we would "all be together" or go back to the fourth member of the band's bedsit. (He was also a model and actor and was having a party.) I didn't understand the hidden meaning. I thought he wanted us to spend the night alone together at Simon's, so this was what I chose. This is what, he later told me, he took as my consent. Asking me where I wanted to stay was taken as consent to group sex.

The year before, our county had been terrorised by a rapist known as the Fox. Malcolm Fairley broke into houses during the night and raped women at gunpoint in front of their husbands. My father, desperate to protect his family, would stay up all night after barricading the windows. He was determined no rapist would get near us.

I felt safe, with my father watching over me. That was what I thought rape was, a man climbing through your window in the night. I never thought it would happen at a local music festival, the first I had ever attended, after days of begging and pleading with my parents. I didn't think Liam would spend three weeks getting to know me, before passing me on to his friends.

I was taken to a small modern house. There was a black leather sofa, black ash veneer furniture and Athena pictures of semi-naked women. It was a 1980s bachelor pad, I suppose, though I had never been in one before. I still had a Pierrot duvet cover. The men said they were tired and that we should go to bed. I followed them up the stairs, led by Liam. When we reached the room I looked around, confused. I asked Liam where we would sleep. He said, "We'll all squeeze in together."

As the other men got into bed I asked Liam if we could sleep downstairs, but Phil was growing impatient and told us to hurry up because he wanted to sleep, and Liam jumped at his command, hurrying me along. I left my shirt and underwear on and got into bed next to the man I had trusted, feeling embarrassed, knowing that I wouldn't sleep a wink.

The light went out and Liam started touching me. I whispered, no, said it wasn't right with his friends there, and asked again to go downstairs. But he wasn't even listening. He had sex with me. I won't say this was rape, though it was statutory rape because of my age, but I was uncomfortable and uncooperative, hating every second of it. I thought that if I just let him do it, it would be over and I would be able to wait out the long hours until it was safe to go home without arousing my parents' suspicions. But then the light was on and Phil said, "Can we join in?" And Liam said, "Be my guest." None of them asked me.

I won't torture the reader or myself with the details of what they did to me. Suffice to say, I was the victim of a "ramming" - one of their catchphrases. I was raped by Simon and Phil in turn, each with the "assistance" of the other. To this day I can still feel the chill metal of Phil's nipple-rings pressing against my flesh as I was torn apart in every sense. I often wake from nightmares where I am having the breath squashed out of me, a huge weight pushing down on me and the smell of his aftershave in my nose.

In Nicholas Meikle's words, like the 17-year-old girl, I "stayed for breakfast", though I didn't eat a thing. I watched them stuff their mouths with fried egg sandwiches and waited for them to drive me home. I couldn't call my parents or go home early, or they would know I had lied and, like many teenagers, I was scared. So I waited and they drove me home. I ran a hot bath and began a ritual that would last for years, scrubbing my flesh in an attempt to get clean. Friends frequently joke about how obsessive-compulsive I am when it comes to cleaning but the truth of this obsession lies in that night.

I have lived with the shame and consequences of their actions for the past 18 years. The emotional repercussions have been enormous. Soon after the attack I attempted suicide but I never told a soul my secret. The men, however, bragged about the "three's up" as they put it. It wasn't seen as rape, though. It was seen as me being a slag, a willing participant in group sex even though I was a child with no experience of men like them, and almost no experience of sex. I have suffered from clinical depression, panic attacks, nightmares and many symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder ever since.

The physical consequences of that night scarred me, too, and the physical damage I sustained during the attack has had serious health implications for me ever since.

I have dealt with my disgusting secret without therapy or help of any kind, other than the endless support of my husband and family. But now, everywhere I turn, I am faced with the story of a teenage girl who says she was gang raped by a group of men who had wooed her with their celebrity. It is in every paper, on the radio and the television. It isn't hearing about it through the media that causes my anger, but rather the comments and opinions of others who question what she was doing drinking in those sorts of bar, pursuing those sorts of men, going back to hotel rooms with strangers, and in their judgment of her behaviour, I feel judged - though they know nothing of what happened to me.

Teenage girls will always be impressed by older men, particularly those who promise a world of glamour and glitz that is far away from their experience. For some girls it might be a premiership footballer but for others it will just be the lad in her class who everyone fancies, or the singer in a local rock band.

I applaud the 17-year-old's ability to tell her parents and go to the police. Much of my anger is at myself for my inability to do these things. At the age of 14, I could only see that it was my fault. I lied to my parents, I agreed to go to the house, I didn't know how to stop the men raping me and so how could I face my family with that amount of shame? I didn't report the rape until many years later, and even then I decided in the end that I couldn't go through with it. I had moved away and wanted to forget it had ever happened.

At a book signing, in my hometown, 16 years on, Liam turned up. I had him ejected. Some months later, Phil turned up at a friend's party just a few minutes from my home. He said hello as if we were old friends. Furious, I confronted him with the truth.

"The thing is Emilia," he said, "we really liked you. We thought of you as one of the gang."

But I was never part of their gang. Their gang was about subjecting schoolgirls to humiliating, degrading sexual acts. What these footballers are accused of is nothing new. The frightening part is that this has always happened. It happens in small towns and cities up and down the country, on council estates and in middle-class suburbs. It happens to nice girls and girls who get drunk, in bars and clubs, and it will go on happening until this issue is tackled head on.

I don't think Phil or Simon believed at the time that they were committing rape. They viewed this type of sex as "normal". Liam later told me he thought I was participating. "You never said anything," he said. When confronted with the victim's perspective they are forced to consider their actions in an entirely different light. I asked Phil to imagine his 14-year-old daughter subjected to an identical situation to mine. Would this be rape? I wanted him to consider me as a person, a child rather than a piece of meat. "Looking at that scenario [the rape]," he said, "I can paint it blacker in my head than probably you can...." I don't think so, but I do believe that he is now aware that rape isn't just grabbing a woman in a dark alleyway at knifepoint.

Young men need to be taught that it isn't rape only when a girl screams and shouts and kicks. There are different types of power and sometimes a woman doesn't even need to be held down. I didn't shout or scream or kick. I lay with my eyes shut tight, crying silently while Phil held Simon by the hips and pushed him into me, brutally, shouting "Ram, ram, ram" and laughing. Afterwards, he asked me if I had come.

· All names except the author's have been changed. Emilia di Girolamo is a writer and award-winning playwright. Her novel Freaky is published by Pulp Books, priced 7.99. Her play Boom Bye Bye, based on these events, is in development.


image of ‘Drugged’ woman live-streamed herself getting ‘raped’ at ...

‘Drugged’ woman live-streamed herself getting ‘raped’ at ...

A WOMAN celebrating her birthday in Opera night club in Atlanta streamed a video of her allegedly being raped on the dance floor by a man she had met that evening. She had posted several videos of ...A WOMAN celebrating her birthday in Opera night club in Atlanta streamed a video of her allegedly being raped on the dance floor by a man she had met that evening. She had posted several videos of her night on social media, but the last one - that has since been removed - shows the distressing moment she is screaming 'help me' as others continued to dance around her..
From: www.thesun.co.uk

A WOMAN live-streamed herself crying and screaming for help as she was 'raped' in the middle of a packed dance floor.

The alleged victim was heard repeatedly shouting "no" and "someone please help me", but no one intervened.

The woman, who can not be named, had uploaded several live videos to her Facebook on Saturday night as she partied at Opera, a nightclub in Atlanta, US.

She posted five videos to the site the fifth showed the moment she was allegedly raped by a man she had been dancing with all evening.

In the shocking 12 minute video which has since been removed, showed the woman saying: "help me" repeatedly.

She then started to get louder, shouting "help me, help me, help me, oh god help me".

Terrified, she continues to yell "no".

In the footage there is a man seen with his phone, seemingly filming the horrific incident.

She screams and "please stop, oh god please."

At one point it's alleged that the man was heard saying "shh" and "baby" as she continued to cry and shout for him to stop.

In all the other videos, that still remain on her Facebook wall, feature the man in question.

Before the supposed attack, they were filmed dancing and laughing together.

The woman told him that she was celebrating her birthday and that she was by herself.

He asks her if she wants a drink, to which she explained she never drinks but she has had one for her birthday.

He is heard saying: "Have another for your birthday."

OUT FOR HER BIRTHDAY

To which she requests something "sweet and with vodka".

Throughout the videos the pair dance, but she seems to get more intoxicated.

He calls her his "new best friend" and kisses her on the cheek.

But suddenly, the night takes a horrendous turn - leaving the club goer screaming in distress.

She released another video the following day on her Facebook page, thanking her friends and family for their support.

She said: "I don't even want to address the situation. I don't want to talk about it, but I'm going to be alright, I'm going to be ok.

She added: "All I want is justice, that's it. That's the game y'all"

The video was viewed by 957,000 times and became inundated with messages of support.

Eagle-eyed viewers claimed to have seen the man spiking her drink with a pill.

Police are investigating the alleged attack.


image of Shocking rape video goes viral in South Africa - CNN

Shocking rape video goes viral in South Africa - CNN

"Rape is a young man's crime. It's a bit of a performance for them, showing off to each other how macho they are. We need to teach our young men that you can be …South Africans woke up on Wednesday morning to the claim that a group of Soweto youths had filmed themselves raping a 17-year-old girl..
Keyword: africa, Shocking rape video goes viral in South Africa - CNN
From: edition.cnn.com

South Africans woke up on Wednesday morning to the claim that a group of Soweto youths had filmed themselves raping a 17-year-old girl believed to be mentally ill.

The cellphone video is said to have gone viral among school kids in the township south of Johannesburg, and the term #rapevideo was trending on Twitter in South Africa on Wednesday.

The Daily Sun, a local tabloid, reports that it alerted the police after a concerned mother whose daughter was watching the video handed it over to the paper on Tuesday.

"The mother of a teenage girl saw the horrifying pictures and confiscated her daughter's phone. A work colleague of the woman said they recognized some of the boys and advised her to take the video to Daily Sun," the newspaper reported.

The suspects, aged between 14 and 20, were arrested Tuesday morning and charged with kidnapping and rape, police spokesperson Warrant Officer Kay Makhubela said.

"The video is very bad. The men can be clearly identified as they take turns raping and filming her," she told CNN.

The girl's mother reported her missing on March 21, Makhubela said.

Media reports suggest the police initially failed to open a missing persons case but that they have since done so.

Police suspect the girl was kidnapped and turned into a sex slave.

A local radio station got hold of the video and has been getting requests to post it.

On Twitter, Eyewitness News editor Katy Katopodis said the station would never do that.


image of I was gang-raped by Mexican thugs who tried to drill holes ...

I was gang-raped by Mexican thugs who tried to drill holes ...

Charise Thompson, then 23, was abducted, beaten, tortured and raped by a Mexican gang as she drove home with her young son James in Texas, US. After being left for dead in …Charise Thompson, then 23, was abducted, beaten, tortured and raped by a Mexican gang as she drove home with her young son James in Texas, US. After being left for dead in a ditch, she crawled two-and-a-half miles on broken legs and elbows to get help. Now, she is bravely speaking out about her ordeal to combat the 'stigma' of sex attacks..
Keyword: Charise Thompson, rape, sex attacks, Texas, gang-rape
From: www.thesun.co.uk

CHANGING a flat tyre at the side of the road as her little boy slept in the car, Charise Thompson was abducted by thugs who tortured, beat and gang-raped her in an act of unimaginable brutality - even drilling into her ankles in an attempt to hang her upside down 'like an animal'.

Left for dead in a ditch, the brave mum fought to survive, crawling two-and-a-half miles to get back to four-year-old James.

Finally, after desperately crawling on her elbows for hours, dragging her broken legs and with devastating internal injuries, she found help. Mercifully her son was discovered unhurt and still sleeping in the back of the car in Texas.

Incredibly, Charise, then 23, survived after being pumped with 31 units of blood.

Now, nearly 40 years on, she has bravely waived her anonymity to speak exclusively about her ordeal for the first time to The Sun Online in a bid to tackle the "stigma" surrounding sex attacks.

She says she had to undergo emergency operations, spent four months in hospital and needed a hysterectomy following the sadistic gang-rape in November 1981.

In a heartbreaking twist, her son spent years quietly believing his own dad - her ex-husband - was to blame after he found a Polaroid snap of his mum's battered and bloodied face in her jewellery box.

James, now 42, was later told about the real culprits. However, 38 years on, the sex beasts who nearly killed Charise have yet to be tracked down and brought to justice.

"They beat and tortured me with their fists, their boots and a tyre iron, tied me to the bumper of the truck and dragged me, then ran over me with the truck," Charise, now 61, recalls.

'They tied me to the truck's bumper then dragged me'

"They tried to drill holes in my ankles and had a gambrel [a rod or hook used to suspend animal carcasses] they were apparently going to hang me on, like a slaughtered animal, but they couldn't get the drill all the way through either ankle.

"They stabbed me with a knife, repeatedly raped me and used the tire iron, telling me that they were the last thing I would ever see.

"I was left torn open, my insides were partly exposed, and I had multiple stab wounds."

Charise, now married to husband, Chris, 73, had been driving back home with James after spending the Thanksgiving holiday with her mum when she stopped to change a tyre.

But standing on the side of Highway 59, between Freer and Laredo in Texas, she was suddenly surrounded by the gang of six, bundled into a truck and driven away from the scene.

"We drove quite a way, I was being hit and shoved down on the back floor," she tells us.

"All I could think about was my son. When I got out to change the flat tyre, he was sound asleep in the back seat and I was terrified that he was being left alone on the side of the highway."

'My son was alone on the side of the highway'

Looking back, Charise is grateful to have been taken away from the scene - it meant her little boy didn't witness her being brutally beaten, assaulted and left for dead.

"After the last time I was hit in the head with the tire iron, I was perfectly still and tried to not even breathe," recalls the mum, who has since moved to Wyoming.

"I didn't understand much Spanish but heard one of them say 'ella esta muerta', or 'she's dead'. They picked me up and threw me into a drainage ditch, like trash.

"I laid there a long time after I heard the truck drive away, in fear they might return. Then I knew I had to get help to my son because I feared they'd go back to my car."

With no idea where she was, Charise began crawling across the ground. She came across what looked like a dirt path - and despite her injuries, desperately tried to follow it.

"I'd crawl a little and then, sure I couldn't go on, I'd close my eyes and pray for death to come.

"But then I'd see my son's face and have to get back up and crawl some more," she says.

Hours later, the courageous mum found what she'd been looking for.

Fourteen broken bones

"The first person I came across was a ranch hand at a small outbuilding," she tells us.

"He didn't have a phone and had to go up to the main house to call for help. The ranch owner and his wife came down to where I was and waited with me until the police and ambulance got there."

When she arrived at hospital, bleeding heavily with 14 broken bones and more than half of her teeth knocked out, Charise says doctors told police that she likely wouldn't make it.

She has 'very little memory' of her first few weeks in hospital, as she received more than 30 units of blood and underwent emergency procedures on her face and to repair her devastating internal injuries.

But as medics worked to save her, there was one bit of positive news - James was safe.

"When the police got to my car, it was still locked and my son was asleep in the back seat," Charise says.

"Once I knew he was safe, I knew relief I'd never known before.

"I had really good friends that took him in and took really good care of him."

The mum spent more than four months in hospital before being transferred to a physical rehabilitation centre and, eventually, treated with outpatient therapy.

"I ended up having to have a complete hysterectomy due to complications with the reconstructive surgery, and female organs that could not work properly," she says.

"The police called it a 'sadistic gang-rape'.

No justice

But despite Charise getting "clear views" of all her attackers and even the licence plate of the truck, which she says was from Mexico, only one suspect was ever tracked down.

"I heard that one was arrested a few months after the attack, but because of a clerical error he was released on an own recognisance [no-cost bail] and never seen again," she claims.

"I heard that there were other victims of this gang in Mexico but no other survivors."

In the weeks after returning home, Charise lived in fear, seeing the thugs' faces in every crowd.

Soon after, she moved away from the area, taking with her a single picture of her injuries - the only one she has of the aftermath of the attack, which was taken by authorities.

She kept the Polaroid image in the bottom of her jewellery box - where unbeknown to her, it was discovered by James years later as he looked for something in her bedroom.

"He never said a word to me, but spent all those years thinking that is was his birth father that had done that," says the mum, who waited till her son was an adult to tell him about the attack.

"I can't imagine what that must have been like for him."

After moving to another part of Texas, Charise started attending the Crisis Center - which helps people who have suffered sexual violence - and realised she didn't have to be a victim.

Instead, she discovered, she could become a survivor.

"It wasn't long before I knew I had done just that," she says.

"You don't forget, but you do learn to move on."

The mum volunteered for the centre, then, after moving to Wyoming, began working as a victim advocate with the protection service Safehouse, helping other rape and violence victims.

Banishing stigma

"It was in helping others to make that transition from victim to survivor that I found the very best help for me and my true healing," she tells us.

Today, she is determined to bring the subject of sex attacks "out of the darkness" and to "remove the stigma from women", who she says may be made to feel guilty for what happened to them.

"When I was in the ambulance, I remember the police officer that rode in there with me ask me, 'What I had done to make them so mad'? Like it was my fault," she says.

"I overheard a doctor tell another police officer at the hospital that I probably wouldn't make it and the police officer said, 'It's just as well ... who would want her now'? Like it lessened the person that I was."

But despite having survived her ordeal, Charise is still suffering from its effects on her health - including painful bones, and problems with both her thyroid and intestines.

She also contracted Hepatitis C from her blood transfusions, leaving her with liver damage.

However, she tells us, there is "life after rape".

"There's happy, fulfilling, beautiful life," she says.

"But that you have to tell someone - a parent, police, counsellor, friend. You have to talk about it and bring it out into the open before you can start to deal with what happened to you and to heal."

She adds: "I am on morphine for the constant pain, but this life is amazing and worth every bit we have to go through to keep it."


image of 'They raped every German female from eight to 80' | Books ...

'They raped every German female from eight to 80' | Books ...

Rape has often been defined by writers on the subject as an act of violence which has little to do with sex. But that is a definition from the victim's perspective. To understand the crime, one ...

Antony Beevor, author of the acclaimed new book about the fall of Berlin, on a massive war crime committed by the victorious Red Army.

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From: www.theguardian.com

"Red Army soldiers don't believe in 'individual liaisons' with German women," wrote the playwright Zakhar Agranenko in his diary when serving as an officer of marine infantry in East Prussia. "Nine, ten, twelve men at a time - they rape them on a collective basis."

The Soviet armies advancing into East Prussia in January 1945, in huge, long columns, were an extraordinary mixture of modern and medieval: tank troops in padded black helmets, Cossack cavalrymen on shaggy mounts with loot strapped to the saddle, lend-lease Studebakers and Dodges towing light field guns, and then a second echelon in horse-drawn carts. The variety of character among the soldiers was almost as great as that of their military equipment. There were freebooters who drank and raped quite shamelessly, and there were idealistic, austere communists and members of the intelligentsia appalled by such behaviour.

Beria and Stalin, back in Moscow, knew perfectly well what was going on from a number of detailed reports. One stated that "many Germans declare that all German women in East Prussia who stayed behind were raped by Red Army soldiers". Numerous examples of gang rape were given - "girls under 18 and old women included".

Marshal Rokossovsky issued order No 006 in an attempt to direct "the feelings of hatred at fighting the enemy on the battlefield." It appears to have had little effect. There were also a few arbitrary attempts to exert authority. The commander of one rifle division is said to have "personally shot a lieutenant who was lining up a group of his men before a German woman spreadeagled on the ground". But either officers were involved themselves, or the lack of discipline made it too dangerous to restore order over drunken soldiers armed with submachine guns.

Calls to avenge the Motherland, violated by the Wehrmacht's invasion, had given the idea that almost any cruelty would be allowed. Even many young women soldiers and medical staff in the Red Army did not appear to disapprove. "Our soldiers' behaviour towards Germans, particularly German women, is absolutely correct!" said a 21-year-old from Agranenko's reconnaissance detachment. A number seemed to find it amusing. Several German women recorded how Soviet servicewomen watched and laughed when they were raped. But some women were deeply shaken by what they witnessed in Germany. Natalya Gesse, a close friend of the scientist Andrei Sakharov, had observed the Red Army in action in 1945 as a Soviet war correspondent. "The Russian soldiers were raping every German female from eight to eighty," she recounted later. "It was an army of rapists."

Drink of every variety, including dangerous chemicals seized from laboratories and workshops, was a major factor in the violence. It seems as if Soviet soldiers needed alcoholic courage to attack a woman. But then, all too often, they drank too much and, unable to complete the act, used the bottle instead with appalling effect. A number of victims were mutilated obscenely.

The subject of the Red Army's mass rapes in Germany has been so repressed in Russia that even today veterans refuse to acknowledge what really happened. The handful prepared to speak openly, however, are totally unrepentant. "They all lifted their skirts for us and lay on the bed," said the leader of one tank company. He even went on to boast that "two million of our children were born" in Germany.

The capacity of Soviet officers to convince themselves that most of the victims were either happy with their fate, or at least accepted that it was their turn to suffer after what the Wehrmacht had done in Russia, is striking. "Our fellows were so sex-starved," a Soviet major told a British journalist at the time, "that they often raped old women of sixty, seventy or even eighty - much to these grandmothers' surprise, if not downright delight."

One can only scratch at the surface of the psychological contradictions. When gang-raped women in Konigsberg begged their attackers afterwards to put them out of their misery, the Red Army men appear to have felt insulted. "Russian soldiers do not shoot women," they replied. "Only German soldiers do that." The Red Army had managed to convince itself that because it had assumed the moral mission to liberate Europe from fascism it could behave entirely as it liked, both personally and politically.

Domination and humiliation permeated most soldiers' treatment of women in East Prussia. The victims not only bore the brunt of revenge for Wehrmacht crimes, they also represented an atavistic target as old as war itself. Rape is the act of a conqueror, the feminist historian Susan Brownmiller observed, aimed at the "bodies of the defeated enemy's women" to emphasise his victory. Yet after the initial fury of January 1945 dissipated, the sadism became less marked. By the time the Red Army reached Berlin three months later, its soldiers tended to regard German women more as a casual right of conquest. The sense of domination certainly continued, but this was perhaps partly an indirect product of the humiliations which they themselves had suffered at the hands of their commanders and the Soviet authorities as a whole.

A number of other forces or influences were at work. Sexual freedom had been a subject for lively debate within Communist party circles during the 1920s, but during the following decade, Stalin ensured that Soviet society depicted itself as virtually asexual. This had nothing to do with genuine puritanism: it was because love and sex did not fit in with dogma designed to "deindividualise" the individual. Human urges and emotions had to be suppressed. Freud's work was banned, divorce and adultery were matters for strong party disapproval. Criminal sanctions against homosexuality were reintroduced. The new doctrine extended even to the complete suppression of sex education. In graphic art, the clothed outline of a woman's breasts was regarded as dangerously erotic. They had to be disguised under boiler suits. The regime clearly wanted any form of desire to be converted into love for the party and above all for Comrade Stalin.

Most ill-educated Red Army soldiers suffered from sexual ignorance and utterly unenlightened attitudes towards women. So the Soviet state's attempts to suppress the libido of its people created what one Russian writer described as a sort of "barracks eroticism" which was far more primitive and violent than "the most sordid foreign pornography". All this was combined with the dehumanising influence of modern propaganda and the atavistic, warring impulses of men marked by fear and suffering.

The novelist Vasily Grossman, a war correspondent attached to the invading Red Army, soon discovered that rape victims were not just Germans. Polish women also suffered. So did young Russian, Belorussian and Ukrainian women who had been sent back to Germany by the Wehrmacht for slave labour. "Liberated Soviet girls quite often complain that our soldiers rape them," he noted. "One girl said to me in tears: 'He was an old man, older than my father'."

The rape of Soviet women and girls seriously undermines Russian attempts to justify Red Army behaviour on the grounds of revenge for German brutality in the Soviet Union. On March 29 1945 the central committee of the Komsomol (the youth organisation of the Soviet Union) informed Stalin's associate Malenkov of a report from the 1st Ukrainian Front. "On the night of 24 February," General Tsygankov recorded in the first of many examples, "a group of 35 provisional lieutenants on a course and their battalion commander entered the women's dormitory in the village of Grutenberg and raped them."

In Berlin, many women were simply not prepared for the shock of Russian revenge, however much horror propaganda they had heard from Goebbels. Many reassured themselves that, although the danger must be great out in the countryside, mass rapes could hardly take place in the city in front of everybody.

In Dahlem, Soviet officers visited Sister Kunigunde, the mother superior of Haus Dahlem, a maternity clinic and orphanage. The officers and their men behaved impeccably. In fact, the officers even warned Sister Kunigunde about the second-line troops following on behind. Their prediction proved entirely accurate. Nuns, young girls, old women, pregnant women and mothers who had just given birth were all raped without pity.

Yet within a couple of days, a pattern emerged of soldiers flashing torches in the faces of women huddled in the bunkers to choose their victims. This process of selection, as opposed to the indiscriminate violence shown earlier, indicates a definite change. By this stage Soviet soldiers started to treat German women more as sexual spoils of war than as substitutes for the Wehrmacht on which to vent their rage.

Rape has often been defined by writers on the subject as an act of violence which has little to do with sex. But that is a definition from the victim's perspective. To understand the crime, one needs to see things from the perpetrator's point of view, especially in the later stages when unaggravated rape had succeeded the extreme onslaught of January and February.

Many women found themselves forced to "concede" to one soldier in the hope that he would protect them from others. Magda Wieland, a 24-year-old actress, was dragged from a cupboard in her apartment just off the Kurfurstendamm. A very young soldier from central Asia hauled her out. He was so excited at the prospect of a beautiful young blonde that he ejaculated prematurely. By sign language, she offered herself to him as a girlfriend if he would protect her from other Russian soldiers, but he went off to boast to his comrades and another soldier raped her. Ellen Goetz, a Jewish friend of Magda's, was also raped. When other Germans tried to explain to the Russians that she was Jewish and had been persecuted, they received the retort: "Frau ist Frau."

Women soon learned to disappear during the "hunting hours" of the evening. Young daughters were hidden in storage lofts for days on end. Mothers emerged into the street to fetch water only in the early morning when Soviet soldiers were sleeping off the alcohol from the night before. Sometimes the greatest danger came from one mother giving away the hiding place of other girls in a desperate bid to save her own daughter. Older Berliners still remember the screams every night. It was impossible not to hear them because all the windows had been blown in.

Estimates of rape victims from the city's two main hospitals ranged from 95,000 to 130,000. One doctor deduced that out of approximately 100,000 women raped in the city, some 10,000 died as a result, mostly from suicide. The death rate was thought to have been much higher among the 1.4 million estimated victims in East Prussia, Pomerania and Silesia. Altogether at least two million German women are thought to have been raped, and a substantial minority, if not a majority, appear to have suffered multiple rape.

If anyone attempted to defend a woman against a Soviet attacker it was either a father trying to defend a daughter or a young son trying to protect his mother. "The 13-year old Dieter Sahl," neighbours wrote in a letter shortly after the event, "threw himself with flailing fists at a Russian who was raping his mother in front of him. He did not succeed in anything except getting himself shot."

After the second stage of women offering themselves to one soldier to save themselves from others, came the post-battle need to survive starvation. Susan Brownmiller noted "the murky line that divides wartime rape from wartime prostitution". Soon after the surrender in Berlin, Ursula von Kardorff found all sorts of women prostituting themselves for food or the alternative currency of cigarettes. Helke Sander, a German film-maker who researched the subject in great detail, wrote of "the grey area of direct force, blackmail, calculation and real affection".

The fourth stage was a strange form of cohabitation in which Red Army officers settled in with German "occupation wives". The Soviet authorities were appalled and enraged when a number of Red Army officers, intent on staying with their German lovers, deserted when it was time to return to the Motherland.

Even if the feminist definition of rape purely as an act of violence proves to be simplistic, there is no justification for male complacency. If anything, the events of 1945 reveal how thin the veneer of civilisation can be when there is little fear of retribution. It also suggests a much darker side to male sexuality than we might care to admit.

© Antony Beevor.
www.antonybeevor.com

· Berlin: The Downfall 1945 is published by Viking Penguin.The BBC Timewatch film about researching the book will be shown on BBC2 at 9pm on May 10.


image of Rape Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com

Rape Definition & Meaning | Dictionary.com

Rape definition, unlawful sexual intercourse or any other sexual penetration of the vagina, anus, or mouth of another person, with or without force, by a sex organ, other body part, or foreign object, without the consent of the victim. See more.Rape definition, unlawful sexual intercourse or any other sexual penetration of the vagina, anus, or mouth of another person, with or without force, by a sex organ, other body part, or foreign object, without the consent of the victim. See more..
From: www.dictionary.com


Rape | Office on Women's Health

Rape is a type of sexual assault that includes sexual penetration, no matter how slight, without consent. Although other types of sexual assault may be done by men or women, rape is almost always done by men. 1 Most women who are raped are raped by someone they know, such as a former or current intimate partner, an acquaintance, or a family ....
From: www.womenshealth.gov


image of An Updated Definition of Rape | OPA | Department of Justice

An Updated Definition of Rape | OPA | Department of Justice

The following post appears courtesy of Susan B. Carbon, Director of the Office on Violence Against Women. In a victory for survivors of rape and their advocates, the Attorney General announced a newly revised definition of rape for nationwide data collection, ensuring that rape will be more accurately reported nationwide.This is archived content from the U.S. Department of Justice website. The information here may be outdated and links may no longer function. Please contact [email protected] if you have any questions about the archive site..
From: www.justice.gov


image of Rape Culture | Sexual Harassment & Rape Prevention Program ...

Rape Culture | Sexual Harassment & Rape Prevention Program ...

Rape culture is defined as stereotyped, false beliefs about rape that justify sexual aggression and trivialize the seriousness of sexual violence. Rape culture has a negative impact on survivors, serving as a silencing function for those who wish to share their narrative..
From: www.unh.edu


image of 21 Synonyms of RAPE - Merriam-Webster

21 Synonyms of RAPE - Merriam-Webster

Synonyms for RAPE: assault, ravishment, sexual assault, violation, abduction, hijacking, kidnapping, snatch Rape: the act of forcing a person to engage in sexual activity and especially intercourse. Synonyms: assault, ravishment, sexual assault…Synonyms for RAPE: assault, ravishment, sexual assault, violation, abduction, hijacking, kidnapping, snatch.
From: www.merriam-webster.com


image of Rape legal definition of rape

Rape legal definition of rape

Rape. A criminal offense defined in most states as forcible sexual relations with a person against that person's will. Rape is the commission of unlawful sexual intercourse or unlawful sexual intrusion. Rape laws in the United States have been revised over the years, and they vary from state to state. Historically, rape was defined as unlawful ...Definition of rape in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is rape? Meaning of rape as a legal term. What does rape mean in law?.
Keyword: rape, online dictionary, thesaurus, dictionary, English dictionary, rape definition, definition of rape, legal, medical, encyclopedia, term, law, explanation, information
From: legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com


Rape - Definition, Meaning & Synonyms | Vocabulary.com

Rape is a word for sexual assault. This is one of the worst crimes there is. Rape can also mean to plunder or strip something of resources.Rape is a word for sexual assault. This is one of the worst crimes there is. Rape can also mean to plunder or strip something of resources..
From: www.vocabulary.com


image of Best of Rape and Revenge Movies - IMDb

Best of Rape and Revenge Movies - IMDb

Rape and revenge films (rape/revenge) are a subgenre of exploitation film that was particularly popular in the 1970s. Rape/revenge movies generally follow the same three act structure: Act I: A woman is raped/gang raped, tortured, and left for dead.Best of Rape and Revenge Movies.
From: www.imdb.com


Rape And Murder Photos and Premium High Res Pictures ...

Browse 11,632 rape and murder stock photos and images available, or start a new search to explore more stock photos and images. violence - rape and murder stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. grunge background: newspaper clippings of crime concepts - rape and murder stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images.Find the perfect Rape And Murder stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. Select from premium Rape And Murder of the highest quality..
From: www.gettyimages.com


image of Video catches spring break rape on Florida beach; no one ...

Video catches spring break rape on Florida beach; no one ...

Warning: Images from video above may be disturbing. Sheriff's deputies in Panama City Beach, Florida, are searching for two men accused in a gang rape on a crowded beach. Two other suspects have ...Warning: Images from video above may be disturbing. Sheriff's deputies in Panama City Beach, Florida, are searching for two men accused in a gang rape on a crowded beach. Two other suspects have already been charged. A group assaulted an apparently unconscious woman in the middle of the day during spring break last month, but no one intervened. It was caught on cell phone video. Anna Werner reports on the new details..
Keyword: panama city beach
From: www.cbsnews.com


Raped Women Videos and HD Footage - Getty Images

Find professional Raped Women videos and stock footage available for license in film, television, advertising and corporate uses. Getty Images offers exclusive rights-ready and premium royalty-free analog, HD, and 4K video of the highest quality.Find professional Raped Women videos and stock footage available for license in film, television, advertising and corporate uses. Getty Images offers exclusive rights-ready and premium royalty-free analog, HD, and 4K video of the highest quality..
From: www.gettyimages.com


image of Raped By A Dog - video Dailymotion

Raped By A Dog - video Dailymotion

Dogs Trying to Rape Women. Sexy-Seven. 2:12. Animal Activists Fight For Change in State Law After Therapy Dog Raped, Killed. Tribune Broadcasting. 4:41. Glenn Beck´s Dad Was Raped And Raped And Raped And Raped. Mike Malloy Show. 1:41.This is a homemade video of being raped by a dog featuring my friend Dakota!.
From: www.dailymotion.com


image of Movies with Disturbing Rape/Sexual Abuse - IMDb

Movies with Disturbing Rape/Sexual Abuse - IMDb

65 Metascore. After a young woman suffers a brutal gang rape in a bar one night, a prosecutor assists in bringing the perpetrators to justice, including the ones who encouraged and cheered on the attack. Director: Jonathan Kaplan | Stars: Kelly McGillis, Jodie Foster, Bernie Coulson, Leo Rossi. Votes: 32,862 | Gross: $32.07M.Movies with Disturbing Rape/Sexual Abuse.
From: www.imdb.com


image of Maharashtra horror: Rape victim, stripped, beaten and ...

Maharashtra horror: Rape victim, stripped, beaten and ...

Maharashtra horror: Rape victim, stripped, beaten and threatened. A 29-year-old woman and her husband were allegedly kidnapped, stripped and beaten by …A 29-year-old woman and her husband were allegedly kidnapped, stripped and beaten by ten men in Maharashtra’s Ahmednagar district. The men allegedly told the woman not to attend any court hearings in a gang rape case that she had filed four years ago. Two policemen have also been alleged to have participated in the group of men that attacked the couple. The accused recorded a video of the victims being assaulted without clothes and threatened to make the footage go viral..
Keyword: maharashtra, rape, crime, violence, crime against woman, kidnapping, ahmednagar
From: timesofindia.indiatimes.com


§ 18.2-61. Rape - Virginia

§ 18.2-61. Rape. A. If any person has sexual intercourse with a complaining witness, whether or not his or her spouse, or causes a complaining witness, whether or not his or her spouse, to engage in sexual intercourse with any other person and such act is accomplished (i) against the complaining witness's will, by force, threat or intimidation of or against the complaining witness ….
From: law.lis.virginia.gov